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The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

The Challenge of Public Pension Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Benedict Clements , David Coady , Frank Eich , Sanjeev Gupta , Alvar Kangur , Baoping Shang , and Mauricio Soto

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 08 January 2016

Language: Chinese

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9787504979971.084

ISBN: 9787504979971

Keywords: Pension reforms, Developed countries, Emerging markets, Pensions, Government expenditures, Cross country analysis, emerging market economies, retirement, pensions, pension spending

Pension reform is high on the policy agenda of many advanced and emerging market economies. In advanced economies the challenge is generally to contain future increases in public pension spending as the population...

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity »

Volume/Issue: 2012/297

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alberto Behar , and Benjamin D. Nelson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475574081.001

ISBN: 9781475574081

Keywords: Gravity models, multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity, trade costs, trade flows, changes in trade, bilateral trade, exporter, and Firm Heterogeneity, firm heterogeneity.

We present a gravity model that accounts for multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity and country-selection into trade, while accommodating asymmetries in trade flows. A new equation for the proportion of export...

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity

Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity »

Source: Trade Flows, Multilateral Resistance, and Firm Heterogeneity

Volume/Issue: 2012/297

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Alberto Behar , and Benjamin D. Nelson

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 20 December 2012

ISBN: 9781475574081

Keywords: Gravity models, multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity, trade costs, trade flows, changes in trade, bilateral trade, exporter, and Firm Heterogeneity, firm heterogeneity.

We present a gravity model that accounts for multilateral resistance, firm heterogeneity and country-selection into trade, while accommodating asymmetries in trade flows. A new equation for the proportion of export...