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Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

In January 1994, seven sub-Saharan African countries—Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte dď lvoire, Mali. Niger, Senegal, and Togo—signed a treaty establishing the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU). These countries, with the addition of Guinea-Bissau in 1997, form part of the CFA franc zone along with a second group of six African countries that participate in a similar monetary arrangement, the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CAEMC). The CAEMC countries are Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. Within eaeh subzone, monetary arrangements are managed by a separate central bank: the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) for the WAEMU and the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) for the CAEMC. The two subzones share a common currency, the CFA franc, which stands for the Communauté financiere africaine in the BCEAO area and for the Coopération financiere en Afrique in the BEAC area.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

During the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, a prolonged deterioration of the terms of trade, a steep increase in labor costs, and the nominal appreciation of the French franc against the U.S. dollar resulted in a considerable real effective appreciation of the CFA franc (Figure 1 and Figure 2 and Appendix II).3 These developments led to a serious decline in the competitive position of the CFA franc zone and a substantial weakening of the economic situation in the region. For the WAEMU as a whole during 1990–93, real GDP growth per capita was negative, and savings and investment ratios were very low (see Table 1 and Appendix IV, Tables 4–13). The deterioration in the terms of trade, together with the slow growth of export volume, resulted in a widening of the external current account deficit to an average of 11 percent of GDP in 1990–93. The shrinking of the tax base caused by the decline in real income as well as the financial difficulties of most corporate taxpayers were reflected in a drop in the ratio of government revenue to GDP, a deterioration in the overall fiscal balance, and severe constraints on government investment. Consequently, there was a significant accumulation of both domestic and external payments arrears, a large increase in the public debt, and a decline in the net foreign assets of the BCEAO.

Mr. Ernesto Hernández-Catá and C. A. François

Abstract

The BCEAO conducts monetary policy in the WAEMU at the regional level. Its basic near-term objectives are (1) to maintain the fixed exchange rate relationship between the CFA franc and the French franc—which means that the trend rate of inflation in the area is fundamentally determined by French inflation (Box 2); and (2) to achieve a target level of foreign assets for the BCEAO. The fixed exchange rate system implies that the independence of regional monetary policy is constrained: money growth within the region is endogenously determined, and an appropriate differential must be maintained between market interest rates in the WAEMU and in France (Figure 3). Moreover, there is no scope for national monetary policies in the member countries of the WAEMU. For this reason, IMF-supported programs in these countries currently do not include targets for either base money or the central banksď net domestic assets because these variables cannot be meaningfully defined at the national level. Even if they could be defined, they would be beyond the control of the national authorities. Of course, fiscal policy—including public debt management—remains within the purview of individual countries in the WAEMU, and IMF-supported programs typically include targets for the fiscal deficit, external borrowing by the government, and net domestic bank credit to the government. Cumulative borrowing by national governments from the BCEAO is itself constrained to no more than 20 percent of their fiscal revenue in the previous year.

International Monetary Fund

This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic developments in the Union of the Comoros during 2003 were adversely affected by the difficult relationship between the Union and island governments. The related disputes regarding competencies and resources prevented the design and implementation of coherent economic policies, brought to a virtual standstill structural reforms, and undermined confidence at home and abroad, with adverse consequences for private investment and foreign aid. As a result, the Comoros real per capita income declined for the sixth year in a row.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

The Fifth Review under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement for the Union of the Comoros discusses macroeconomic policies and developments of the country. The performance under the ECF-supported program through end-December has been satisfactory. All performance criteria and indicative targets for end-December 2012 have been met, with wide margins in some cases. Macroeconomic developments have been consistent with expectations under the ECF arrangement. IMF staff has proposed modifications to the structural benchmarks, and recommends completion of the fifth review under the ECF arrangement.

International Monetary Fund

The policies in a challenging political and economic environment are discussed in this study. The importance of reforms to enhance the budget process, tax administration, and expenditure control is encouraged. A higher growth path will require far-reaching structural reforms to bolster Comoros's competitiveness and increase the economy’s ability to intermediate remittances and aid inflows. The need to improve the business environment and the management of public utilities is explained in detail.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights difficulties the economy of Comoros encountered in 2015 and the first half of 2016. An ongoing crisis in the electricity sector and slower-than-expected implementation of the public investment program were the main factors behind the slower growth. Inflation remained well anchored at an annual rate of about 2 percent. Fiscal policy was challenging for most of 2015 as the impact of slower economic growth was compounded by lower revenues. Growth is projected to pick up somewhat to 2 percent in 2016, and revenues are projected to increase to 12 percent of GDP.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
The Fifth Review under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) Arrangement for the Union of the Comoros discusses macroeconomic policies and developments of the country. The performance under the ECF-supported program through end-December has been satisfactory. All performance criteria and indicative targets for end-December 2012 have been met, with wide margins in some cases. Macroeconomic developments have been consistent with expectations under the ECF arrangement. IMF staff has proposed modifications to the structural benchmarks, and recommends completion of the fifth review under the ECF arrangement.
International Monetary Fund
This report on the Observance of Standards and Codes for the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 40 Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and 9 Special Recommendations on Combating the Financing of Terrorism (CFT) was prepared by the Legal Department of the IMF. It provides a summary of the AML/CFT measures. The assessment is based on the information available at the time of the onsite mission conducted. The views are those of the IMF team and do not reflect the views of the government of the Comoros.
International Monetary Fund
Depuis plusieurs années, le FMI publie un nombre croissant de rapports et autres documents couvrant l'évolution et les tendances économiques et financières dans les pays membres. Chaque rapport, rédigé par une équipe des services du FMI à la suite d'entretiens avec des représentants des autorités, est publié avec l'accord du pays concerné.