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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

In a news brief issued on June 15, IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus announced that an IMF Executive Board meeting had been set for early July to consider Mexico’s request for a Stand-By credit from the IMF equivalent to SDR 3.1 billion (about $4.1 billion). “The credit would be in support of the government’s strong economic program for 1999–2000,” Camdessus said, “and would help ensure the maintenance of a strong policy framework during the transition to the next administration, and thereby support market confidence during this period.

Jorge Ivan Canales-Kriljenko, Brahima Coulibaly, and Herman Kamil

Prize or Penalty: When Sports Help Economies Score" looks at why countries vie to host the world's most costly sporting events. And, in a series of articles on "After the Crisis," we discuss why some countries were hit harder than others; how were shocks transmitted round the world, and whether protectionist pressures might intensify in 2010. As usual, we take on a number of hot topics, including housing prices, bankers' bonuses, Ponzi schemes, and inflation targeting. In "Picture This" we see that the number of hungry is on the rise, topping 1 billion. Our regular "People in Economics" column profiles Daron Acemoglu, the Turkish-born intellectual who won the American Economic Association's award in 2005 for the most influential U.S. economist under the age of 40. "Back to Basics" explains inflation; and "Data Spotlight" looks at how dollarization is declining in Latin America. Also includes articles by Nick Stern on climate change and Simon Johnson on bonuses and the "doomsday cycle

Mrs. Socorro Heysen

This paper highlights that the current round of trade talks under the auspices of the World Trade Organization aims at better integrating developing countries—especially the small and poor ones—into the global trading system. For that reason, it was named the Doha Development Agenda when it was launched in late 2001. However, more than three years on, little progress has been made. It took a late July 2004 accord outlining “negotiating frameworks” in agriculture and industrial products just to keep the talks afloat.

Guillermo A. Calvo and Carmen M. Reinhart

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.

This Selected Issues paper analyzes spillover risks for Colombia. It highlights that external shocks could spill over to the Colombian economy through the country’s important and growing trade and financial linkages with the rest of the world. Colombia would be most exposed to a decline in oil prices, which could have a sizable adverse impact on the balance of payments, the fiscal accounts and growth. Growth shocks in key trading partners could also have a negative impact, particularly in the United States, which is Colombia’s main trading partner. Colombia’s fiscal rule and adjustment in the context of resource wealth is also analyzed.

Eugene A. Birnbaum

As a part of the proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund, an Informal Session on “Recent Developments in Monetary Analysis” was held on September 25, 1956. The three papers which were presented at that Session by Dr. M. W. Holtrop, President of De Nederlandsche Bank, Dr. Paolo Baffi, Economic Adviser to Banca d’Italia, and Dr. Ralph A. Young, Director of the Division of Research and Statistics, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, are reproduced below, together with the background paper, “Monetary Analyses,” prepared by the Statistics Division of the Research and Statistics Department of the International Monetary Fund.

Josè M. Cartas

Prize or Penalty: When Sports Help Economies Score" looks at why countries vie to host the world's most costly sporting events. And, in a series of articles on "After the Crisis," we discuss why some countries were hit harder than others; how were shocks transmitted round the world, and whether protectionist pressures might intensify in 2010. As usual, we take on a number of hot topics, including housing prices, bankers' bonuses, Ponzi schemes, and inflation targeting. In "Picture This" we see that the number of hungry is on the rise, topping 1 billion. Our regular "People in Economics" column profiles Daron Acemoglu, the Turkish-born intellectual who won the American Economic Association's award in 2005 for the most influential U.S. economist under the age of 40. "Back to Basics" explains inflation; and "Data Spotlight" looks at how dollarization is declining in Latin America. Also includes articles by Nick Stern on climate change and Simon Johnson on bonuses and the "doomsday cycle

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper analyzes economic performance of Ecuador under dollarization. The paper reviews the principal trade-offs normally associated with official dollarization, and their specific relevance to Ecuador. It discusses Ecuador’s performance under the dollarization regime, highlighting the country’s main achievements and challenges in the macroeconomic and structural areas. The paper draws some conclusions and discusses what dollarization implies for Ecuador’s reform agenda in the future. The paper also assesses sustainability of Ecuador’s fiscal policy and explores criteria that could guide the setting of fiscal policy in the future.

WILLIAM L. HEMPHILL

Theoretical and empirical studies of aggregate import behavior generally show the flow of imports to be determined chiefly by aggregate economic activity and by import prices relative to prices of domestically produced substitutes. For many less developed countries, however, this relationship is questionable because of the effects of trade and exchange restrictions. For these countries, imports consist largely of producer goods—capital equipment, maintenance items, and imported components—and there are no adequate domestic substitutes. If restrictions are used to limit imports, there will be a tendency for imports to determine output, rather than the reverse, particularly in the manufacturing sector.

International Monetary Fund

In 2007, imports of consumer, intermediate, and capital goods grew at annual rates slightly exceeding 10 percent. Export growth lagged behind that of imports, as buoyant nontraditional exports, rising at a 16 percent annual rate, were offset by stagnant exports of the maquila sector. In particular, the discussions centered on (i) spillovers from the United States to El Salvador and the associated risks; (ii) the short-term fiscal stance and its consistency with medium-term fiscal objectives; and (iii) the internationalization of the Salvadoran banking system.