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RATTAN J. BHATIA and DEENA R. KHATKHATE

Recent literature on economic development has focused considerable attention on the process of financial intermediation and its impact on growth.1 It has been argued that an increase in financial intermediation, as denoted by the ratio of financial assets of all kinds to gross national product (GNP), necessarily accompanies growth, although causal relationship has not always been explicitly postulated. Numerous empirical studies have analyzed cross-sectional and time-series data to support this argument.2 Based on the existence of this relationship, policy recommendations tend to be oriented toward encouraging financial savings by such means as higher real interest rates and expanding the financial network in the less developed countries. The main purpose of this paper is to find out how far financial intermediation has progressed with economic growth in selected African countries and whether it has been instrumental in generating development. In other words, an attempt is made to see whether financial intermediation is both a necessary and a sufficient condition for economic growth.

Mark Baird and Sudhir Shetty

This paper describes why the international community needs to act now to stand a chance of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The paper gives example of Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world, with an estimated per capita income of about US$100. According to the World Bank, recent national household surveys find 44 percent of the people in Ethiopia cannot meet basic needs. The paper discusses that Ethiopia in many ways epitomizes why the MDGs are important and why more money is needed to achieve them.

International Monetary Fund
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on the Republic of Madagascar explain the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) to accelerate and better coordinate the development process. The National Leadership Institute of Madagascar (NLIM) was created in 2006 to provide cutting-edge training to build leadership capacity at all levels of government and for all sectors of society. The Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) is charged with ensuring that the business climate of Madagascar is attractive for companies and conducive for the success of private enterprises.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper surveys the economic costs of corruption in Madagascar, and provides a few ideas on how to advance anticorruption reforms. Madagascar’s governance indicators weakened significantly during the transition period 2009–13. Governance indicators that generally were on par with middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ten years ago have regressed and converged to the average of fragile SSA countries. After the return of constitutional order in 2014, the government has started to address corruption, mainly through the introduction of new laws so far. More emphasis is needed on effective implementation and raising sufficient resources to fight corruption.
International Monetary Fund
The report examines the annual report of Madagascar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Madagascar’s economic situation has been characterized by steady growth estimated at 5.0 percent on average against an average annual demographic growth rate of 2.8 percent. However, the living standard of the population as captured by the indicators related to the big objectives of the Madagascar Action Plan has not kept up with this pace. The organic law on public finances and the new code of public procurements have become more effective.
International Monetary Fund
This paper examines the first annual report on the implementation of Madagascar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The report reviews the status of achievements on policy measures, action plans, as well as reforms concerning the Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). It covers the first year of PRSP implementation corresponding to the period from July 2003 to June 2004. It also highlights the connections between the achievements and objectives, programs, and indicators.
International Monetary Fund

The report examines the annual report of Madagascar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Madagascar’s economic situation has been characterized by steady growth estimated at 5.0 percent on average against an average annual demographic growth rate of 2.8 percent. However, the living standard of the population as captured by the indicators related to the big objectives of the Madagascar Action Plan has not kept up with this pace. The organic law on public finances and the new code of public procurements have become more effective.

International Monetary Fund

The report examines the annual report of Madagascar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Madagascar’s economic situation has been characterized by steady growth estimated at 5.0 percent on average against an average annual demographic growth rate of 2.8 percent. However, the living standard of the population as captured by the indicators related to the big objectives of the Madagascar Action Plan has not kept up with this pace. The organic law on public finances and the new code of public procurements have become more effective.