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Mr. Shekhar Aiyar, Mai Chi Dao, Mr. Andreas A. Jobst, Ms. Aiko Mineshima, Ms. Srobona Mitra, and Mahmood Pradhan
This paper evaluates the impact of the crisis on European banks’ capital under a range of macroeconomic scenarios, using granular data on the size and riskiness of sectoral exposures. The analysis incorporates the important role of pandemic-related policy support, including not only regulatory relief for banks, but also policies to support businesses and households, which act to shield the financial sector from the real economic shock.
Tamas Gaidosch, Frank Adelmann, Anastasiia Morozova, and Christopher Wilson
This paper highlights the emerging supervisory practices that contribute to effective cybersecurity risk supervision, with an emphasis on how these practices can be adopted by those agencies that are at an early stage of developing a supervisory approach to strengthen cyber resilience. Financial sector supervisory authorities the world over are working to establish and implement a framework for cyber risk supervision. Cyber risk often stems from malicious intent, and a successful cyber attack—unlike most other sources of risk—can shut down a supervised firm immediately and lead to systemwide disruptions and failures. The probability of attack has increased as financial systems have become more reliant on information and communication technologies and as threats have continued to evolve.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This Selected Issues paper on Euro Area Policies 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights the monetary transmission mechanism and monetary policies. The European Central Bank has announced the Outright Monetary Transactions framework to address severe distortions in sovereign bond markets and safeguard monetary transmission. The cost of unsecured bond issuance remains elevated for both core and periphery banks, but there is a growing divergence between the two, driven mainly by rising periphery spreads. Weak growth and high levels of private balance sheet debt in the periphery are weighing on the health of bank balance sheets.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department


The Global Financial Stability Report examines current risks facing the global financial system and policy actions that may mitigate these. It analyzes the key challenges facing financial and nonfinancial firms as they continue to repair their balance sheets. Chapter 2 takes a closer look at whether sovereign credit default swaps markets are good indicators of sovereign credit risk. Chapter 3 examines unconventional monetary policy in some depth, including the policies pursued by the Federal Reserve, the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank, and the U.S. Federal Reserve.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses findings of interconnectedness and spillover analysis on Italy. The market-based measures of tail risks and interconnectedness among key banks and insurance companies in Italy have declined from their peak but remain at elevated levels. Although the stress on Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena has been manifesting on its own, the market perception about the condition of the banks appears to be increasingly contaminating the market views on other Italian financial institutions. It is also observed that exogenous factors, such as the Italian sovereign, are the key source of systemic risk for the market pricing of Italian financial institutions.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper elaborates key findings of the Detailed Assessment of Observance of Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision by Italy. The core supervisory process at the Banca d’Italia (BI) is strong, and it has a well-defined and integrated supervisory approach. BI is well regarded both in terms of independence, professional qualification, and integrity. The various components of its supervision are integrated in the Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process. The authorities have made progress in addressing the recommendations of the 2006 Financial Sector Assessment Program, although some issues remain. The supervisory coverage of the Bank of Italy is comprehensive, and the follow-up process is intensive.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note evaluates the progress achieved by the Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) in strengthening banking supervision in Bulgaria. Progress in responding to the recommendation of the 2015 Basel Core Principles Assessment is under way. As part of the reforms initiated in October 2015, the BNB has put in place a new governance model to enhance the effectiveness of supervision. The activities of the Banking Supervision Department (BSD) will now be governed by new formal policies adopted by the Governing Council (GC). Through a new quarterly report, the GC is now better informed on banking risks and progress in addressing them. The BSD is also subject to annual internal audit.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This technical note presents risk analysis of banking and insurance sector in France. The assessment is based on stress tests, which simulate the health of banks, insurers under severe yet plausible (counterfactual) adverse scenarios. The stress tests reveal that banks and insurers would be resilient against simulated shocks, although some challenges remain. French banks have improved their capitalization and asset quality; however, profitability remains challenged. The report also highlights that profitability is pressured on both the income and expense sides. Banks’ ability to generate higher interest income is constrained by persistently low interest rates, and market businesses including trading activities have contracted in recent years. Growth-at-risk (GaR) analysis shows that the biggest contributing factors to the risk of growth are cost of funding and stock market prices. Financial conditions continue to tighten gradually since mid-2017; though the overall conditions remain accommodative. Risks stemming from loans to households seem to be contained over the short- to medium-term horizon, given relatively strong households’ balance sheets, no evidence of significant misalignment in house prices, social safety nets, and fixed interest rates.