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International Monetary Fund

Despite good economic reforms, macroeconomic stability, and a major expansion of the hydrocarbon sector, Bolivia still achieved only modest gains in poverty reduction. Executive Directors stressed the importance of fiscal prudence, domestic taxation, and strengthening of public expenditure management to ensure fiscal sustainability. They commended the central bank for its monetary policy stance. They highlight the need to attain greater equity, transparency, and accountability underpinned by cautious macroeconomic policies. They underscored that Bolivia may face a competitive external environment for its nontraditional exports in the period ahead.

Mr. Paul Henri Mathieu and Clinton R. Shiells

This paper focuses on the Doha Development Agenda. The paper highlights that over the past 20 years, world trade has grown twice as fast as world real GDP, deepening economic integration and raising living standards. The paper underscores that the launch of a new trade round in Doha in November 2001 was a major breakthrough following the debacle in Seattle in 1999. The new round places the needs and interests of developing countries at the heart of its work, but a successful outcome for rich and poor nations alike is by no means a foregone conclusion.

Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. David Coady, Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Trevor Serge Coleridge Alleyne, and Mr. Carlo A Sdralevich

Abstract

Energy subsidies are aimed at protecting consumers, however, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. This book provides the most comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies currently available for 176 countries and an analysis of “how to do” energy subsidy reform, drawing on insights from 22 country case studies undertaken by the IMF staff and analyses carried out by other institutions.

Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. David Coady, Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Trevor Serge Coleridge Alleyne, and Mr. Carlo A Sdralevich

Abstract

Energy subsidies have wide-ranging economic consequences. Although they are aimed at protecting consumers, subsidies aggravate fiscal imbalances, crowd out priority public spending, and depress private investment, including in the energy sector. Subsidies also distort resource allocation by encouraging excessive energy consumption, artificially promoting capital-intensive industries, reducing incentives for investment in renewable energy, and accelerating the depletion of natural resources. Most subsidy benefits are captured by higher-income households, reinforcing inequality. Even future generations are affected through the damaging effects of increased energy consumption on global warming. This book provides (1) the most comprehensive estimates of energy subsidies currently available for 176 countries and (2) an analysis of “how to do” energy subsidy reform, drawing on insights from 22 country case studies undertaken by the IMF staff and analyses carried out by other institutions.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Qatar is implementing an ambitious diversification strategy, while retaining its systemic role in the global natural gas market. Qatar accounts for one-third of global liquefied natural gas trade and has emerged as an important global financial investor, labor importer, and donor. The authorities are executing a large public infrastructure program to advance economic diversification and prepare for the FIFA 2022 World Cup. The economy has maintained strong growth momentum so far despite the large drop in oil prices since summer 2014. The short-term growth outlook is positive, but lower oil prices will lead to a substantial deterioration of the fiscal and external balances.

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues Paper focuses on the Heritage and Stabilization Fund (HSF) and development in the energy sector in Trinidad and Tobago. The HSF, established in 2007, is an important national asset, which has broad-based political and social support. The HSF has developed a strong record since its creation. It has performed well as measured by the accumulation of savings, the portfolio return, and adherence to the Santiago Principles for transparency and governance. This is particularly commendable given global and domestic financial crises.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Bolivia reports that it has experienced major increases in its gas reserves, production, and exports. Not only have their levels increased significantly, but also there have been extensive regulatory changes, which range from the privatization of the mid-1990s to the increase in the government’s tax take from the hydrocarbons industry. The government has reached new agreements with foreign oil companies that will allow foreign companies to continue recovering part of their old investments.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
This Selected Issues paper discusses the potential fiscal impact of a large-scale gas project and explores aspects of macro-fiscal management of the associated revenue flow. The chapter also provides background and context focusing on recent offshore natural gas discoveries. The paper also describes features of the current petroleum fiscal regime in Tanzania and will present tentative simulations of the fiscal impact of a potential gas project. A string of natural gas discoveries in Tanzania’s deep offshore waters have generated considerable expectations. The outlook for natural gas in Tanzania is positive, albeit still highly uncertain. If major revenues are obtained and put to fruitful use, they could have a transformational impact on the economy. At the same time, expectations need to be tempered by the remaining uncertainty about the eventual size of the gas resources; no company has yet made a final investment decision involving the deep offshore gas reserves. This uncertainty will hopefully diminish in the next few years.
International Monetary Fund
Despite good economic reforms, macroeconomic stability, and a major expansion of the hydrocarbon sector, Bolivia still achieved only modest gains in poverty reduction. Executive Directors stressed the importance of fiscal prudence, domestic taxation, and strengthening of public expenditure management to ensure fiscal sustainability. They commended the central bank for its monetary policy stance. They highlight the need to attain greater equity, transparency, and accountability underpinned by cautious macroeconomic policies. They underscored that Bolivia may face a competitive external environment for its nontraditional exports in the period ahead.