Mr. Amadou N Sy, Mr. Peter J Kunzel, Mr. Paul S. Mills, and Andreas Jobst
Recent years have witnessed a surge in the issuance of Islamic capital market securities (sukuk) by corporates and public sector entities amid growing demand for alternative investments. As the sukuk market continues to develop, new challenges and opportunities for sovereign debt managers and capital market development arise. This paper reviews the key developments in the sukuk market and informs the debate about challenges and opportunities going forward.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper summarizes the stress tests (ST) undertaken for the Malaysian banking system as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP). All banks were subject to solvency, liquidity and contagion tests in the macroeconomic stress testing set-up. The solvency tests assessed the resilience of the Malaysian banking system under three macroeconomic scenarios from 2012 to 2016. Single year bottom up (BU) sensitivity tests for Malaysian banks covered various single-factor credit and market risk shocks. A multi-factor BU sensitivity liquidity test was also carried out by participating banks and extended to not only key onshore banks but covered some Labuan entities and overseas subsidiaries. The findings suggest that the onshore banking system in Malaysia has substantial capital buffers to absorb credit losses on its credit risk exposures. Conventional banks can benefit from buffers provided by significant income as a first line of defense against credit losses. Some larger domestic banks benefit from income in terms of strong revenues from domestic operations as well as potential income from overseas operations.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note focuses on financial sector performance, vulnerabilities, and derivatives in Malaysia. The note highlights that banking sector has undergone consolidation while competition has increased following measures implemented under the Financial Sector Master Plan 2001–2010. Malaysian banks are presently well capitalized with comfortable Tier 1 capital ratios. Stronger financial positions and risk management capability have enabled domestic banking groups to pursue overseas expansions, mostly within the region. The importance to some banks of overseas assets and earnings is reaching levels which, based on international experience, warrant a review of internal controls.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This paper presents country experiences with reforms to strengthen regulatory oversight of the Islamic banking sector. Based on the selected country experiences, a number of important lessons and policy options can be drawn that have implications for the stable and sound development of Islamic banking. An enabling regulatory and institutional framework and a level playing field for conventional and Islamic banks is critical for the sound and stable growth of the Islamic banking industry. The country experiences also underscore the importance of providing an enabling framework while letting market forces determine the size of the industry.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper investigates impact of financial technology (FinTech) on Malaysia’s financial sector. Malaysia is digitally enabled to seize the opportunities brought by FinTech. Malaysian banks continue to dominate in deposits, lending and capital raising, but they have been gradually reducing their emphasis on physical distribution networks. The top five Malaysian banks have increased their technology-related spending over the past three years. Regulators have been mindful of developments outside of the traditional regulatory perimeter that could pose financial stability risks. Rapidly evolving technology is likely to bring multiple challenges to the financial sector. Regulatory requirements are an important component of operating in the FinTech space. Regulators must strike a balance between ensuring financial stability and consumer protection, while promoting innovation and competition. In order to address the lack of regulatory acumen among FinTech industry players, Bank Negara Malaysia has spearheaded various initiatives. A key challenge for Malaysian regulators is to strike a balance between reaping the benefits of FinTech and mitigating potential downside risks in both conventional and Islamic finance. Frequent refinements to regulations and supervision are required to keep pace with the highly dynamic nature of FinTech to balance benefits and risks.
Mr. Enrique A Gelbard, Mr. Mumtaz Hussain, Mr. Rodolfo Maino, Mr. Yibin Mu, and Mr. Etienne B Yehoue
Islamic finance is a fast growing activity in world markets. This paper provides a survey on Islamic Finance in SSA. Ongoing activities include Islamic banking, sukuk issuances (to finance infrastructure projects), Takaful (insurance), and microfinance. While not yet significant in most Sub-Saharan countries, several features make Islamic finance instruments relevant to the region, in particular the ability to foster SMEs and micro-credit activtities. As a first step, policy makers could introduce Islamic financing windows within the conventional system and facilitate sukuk issuance to tap foreign investors. The entrance of full-fleged Islamic banks require addressing systemic issues, and adapting the crisis management and resolution frameworks. The IMF can play a role by sharing international experiences and providing advice on supervisory and regulatory frameworks as needed.
What attracts conventional investors to Islamic financial instruments? We answer this question by comparing Malaysian Islamic and conventional security prices and their response to macrofinancial factors. Our analysis suggests that Islamic and conventional bond and equity prices are driven by common factors. Likewise, especially in recent years, Islamic banks have responded to economic and financial shocks in the same way as conventional banks, suggesting that the gap between Islamic and conventional financial practices is shrinking.
Derivatives are few and far between in countries where the compatibility of financial transactions with Islamic law requires the development of shari'ah-compliant structures. Islamic finance is governed by the shari'ah, which bans speculation and gambling, and stipulates that income must be derived as profits from the shared generation of goods and services between counterparties rather than interest or a guaranteed return. The paper explains the fundamental legal principles underpinning Islamic finance with a view towards developing a cohesive theory of derivatives subject to shari'ahprinciples. After critically reviewing accepted contracts and the scholastic debate surrounding existing financial innovation in this area, the paper offers an axiomatic perspective on a principle-based permissibility of derivatives under Islamic law.
Aledjandro Lopez Mejia, Suliman Aljabrin, Rachid Awad, Mr. Mohamed Norat, and Mr. In W Song
This paper aims at developing a better understanding of Islamic banking (IB) and providing policy recommendations to enhance the supervision of Islamic banks (IBs). It points out and discusses similarities and differences of IBs with conventional banks (CBs) and reviews whether the IBs are more stable than CBs. Given the risks faced by IBs, the paper concludes that they need a legal, corporate and regulatory framework as much as CB does. The paper also argues that it is important to ensure operational independence of the supervisory agency, which has to be supported by adequate resources, a sound legal framework, a well designed governance structure, and robust accountability practices.
This paper analyzes the implications of Islamic precepts on banks’ structure and activities, focusing on banking supervision issues. It points out and discusses these issues in the context of a paradigm version of Islamic banking, as well as in frameworks that fall between the paradigm version and conventional banking. The case of Islamic banks operating in a conventional system is also examined.