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International Monetary Fund and World Bank

Abstract

1. The Guidelines are designed to assist policymakers in considering reforms to strengthen the quality of their public debt management and reduce their country’s vulnerability to domestic and external shocks, irrespective of whether they are structural or financial in nature. Vulnerability is often greater for smaller and emerging market countries because their economies may be less diversified, have a smaller base of domestic financial savings and less developed financial systems, and may be more susceptible to financial contagion through capital flows. Nevertheless, events since the global financial crisis in the late 2000s demonstrate that larger and developed economies are vulnerable too. The Guidelines should therefore be considered within the broader context of the factors and forces affecting a government’s financial position more generally, and the management of its balance sheet. Governments often manage large foreign exchange reserves portfolios, their fiscal positions are frequently subject to real and monetary shocks, and they can have large exposures to contingent liabilities and to the consequences of poor balance sheet management in the private sector. However, irrespective of whether financial shocks originate within the domestic banking sector or from global financial contagion, prudent government debt management policies, along with sound macroeconomic and regulatory policies, are essential for containing the welfare and output costs associated with such shocks.

International Monetary Fund and World Bank

Abstract

4. Public debt management is the process of establishing and executing a strategy for managing the government’s debt in order to raise the required amount of funding at the lowest possible cost over the medium to long term, consistent with a prudent degree of risk. It should also meet any other public debt management goals the government may have set, such as developing and maintaining an efficient market for government securities.

International Monetary Fund and World Bank

Abstract

10. The main objective of public debt management is to ensure that the government’s financing needs and its payment obligations are met at the lowest possible cost over the medium to long term, consistent with a prudent degree of risk.

International Monetary Fund and World Bank

Abstract

49. The main objective of public debt management is to ensure that the government’s financing needs and its payment obligations are met at the lowest possible cost over the medium to long term, consistent with a prudent degree of risk. Prudent risk management to avoid risky debt structures and strategies (including monetary financing of the government’s debt) is crucial, given the severe macroeconomic consequences of public debt default and the magnitude of the ensuing output losses. These costs include business and banking insolvencies as well as the diminished long-term credibility and capability of the government to mobilize domestic and foreign savings. Box 1 provides a list of the main risks encountered in public debt management.

Mr. Thomas Helbling and Ms. Sena Eken

Abstract

Following the 15-year civil war that started in 1975, Lebanon's government began the difficult task of economic stabilization and confidence building, on the one hand, and postwar reconstruction and development, on the other. The government led the reconstruction effort by formulating programs that aimed to rapidly rehabilitate the country's severly damaged infrastructure in preparation for private-sector-led growth over the medium term. At the same time, Lebanon introduced an exchange-rate-based nominal anchor policy to stabilize expectations and cut inflation. This paper analyzes the government's progress with the policies adopted.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper highlights that the World Bank and its affiliate, the International Development Association (IDA), will support three projects in Kenya—one for rural access roads, an additional for integrated rural development, and a third for wildlife and tourism. A US$4 million loan and a US$4 million IDA credit will assist the government of Kenya in implementing the first phase of the rural access roads program. The program aims at the construction of 15,000 km of rural access roads in eight years.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The papers published in this volume are based on an IMF seminar held in 2000 that covered a broad range of topics on monetary and financial law, such as the liberalization of capital movements, data dissemination, responsibilities of central banks, and the IMF’s goals in financial surveillance and architecture. Participants addressed recent issues in the financial sector, including those related to payment systems and supervision of financial institutions. Updates dealt with Internet banking, bank secrecy, and currency arrangements-including dollarization. Participants discussed the recent activities of the other international financial institutions, which included the European Central Bank and the International Finance Corporation. Prevention of financial crises was also discussed, with reference to the distinct roles of the IMF and the private sector.

Mr. Dmitry Gershenson, Mr. Albert Jaeger, and Mr. Subir Lall
In 2011, following years of large-scale external imbalances financed by debt, Portugal’s economy reached a crisis point. To restore economic growth and credibility with international lenders, the country embarked on a difficult path of fiscal adjustment and structural reforms. By many metrics, Portugal’s 2011–14 macroeconomic stabilization program has been a success, but going forward Portugal would benefit from policies to reduce vulnerabilities, absorb labor slack, and generate sustainable growth.