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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper describes declining activity that was responsible for a weakening of import demand in the industrial countries. There was also a marked reduction in the growth of the volume of imports by the non-oil developing countries, notwithstanding a substantial increase in external borrowing at higher costs and a considerable reduction in the real value of their international reserves arising mainly from rapid inflation. The current account positions of a number of industrial and non-oil developing countries thus became increasingly difficult in 1980. In an overall setting of excess capacity and rising unemployment, demands for protectionist measures in industrial countries intensified during the period under review.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1982

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper highlights information available to the IMF from a number of sources, including that provided in the course of consultation visits to member countries, and it has been prepared in close collaboration with national authorities. Measures intensifying members’ trade restrictions are subject to similar reporting provisions when a member has been granted an arrangement for the use of the IMF’s resources. The report centers on exchange arrangements and exchange restrictions, but it is also more comprehensive in that it presents other external economic policy measures and intergovernmental arrangements that may have balance of payments implications. As in previous reports, questions of definition and jurisdiction have not been raised; the description in the report of a restrictive practice by a member does not imply that it is or is not being maintained consistently with the IMF’s Articles, or that, if subject to Article VIII, it has or has not been approved by the IMF.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1984

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

This paper discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. Global output and trade recovered strongly in 1984, as inflation in the industrial countries remained relatively subdued and further progress in developing countries was made in tackling the problem of overindebtedness. Restrictive exchange practices in the form of multiple exchange rates have been substantially reduced in 1984. Multilateral restructurings of obligations have been large in 1983, amounting to some SDR 60 billion, as compared with SDR 6 billion in 1982.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

This report describes developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1985 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1986. The report highlights that a salient feature of exchange rate developments in 1985 was the weakening of the U.S. dollar, following four consecutive years of appreciation. As a result, the currencies of most of the other major industrial countries appreciated against the U.S. dollar and in nominal effective terms.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

This report discusses developments in the international exchange rate and restrictive systems. The period covered by this report is 1986 and, for major developments, the first quarter of 1987. The report highlights that in 1986, protectionist pressures for trade restrictions in the industrial countries continued to be fueled by large and widening bilateral trade imbalances, persistently high levels of unemployment, and a widespread slowing of economic growth. In spite of continued resistance by some governments, quantitative restrictions were tightened in many industrial countries. There were nevertheless several positive developments in the trade and exchange system.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaçao and St Maarten. The Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) draws together information on exchange measures in place, the structure and setting of exchange rates, arrangements for payments and receipts, procedures for resident and nonresident accounts, controls on capital transactions, and provisions specific to the financial sector. The data are presented in a clear, easy-to-read tabular format. A summary table allows for simple cross-country comparisons of key features of their exchange and trade regimes. The report’s introduction summarizes recent global trends and developments.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaçao and St Maarten. The Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) draws together information on exchange measures in place, the structure and setting of exchange rates, arrangements for payments and receipts, procedures for resident and nonresident accounts, controls on capital transactions, and provisions specific to the financial sector. The data are presented in a clear, easy-to-read tabular format. A summary table allows for simple cross-country comparisons of key features of their exchange and trade regimes. The report’s introduction summarizes recent global trends and developments.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

Published since 1950, this authoritative annual reference is based upon a unique IMF database that tracks exchange and trade arrangements for the 187 IMF member countries, along with Hong Kong SAR, Aruba, and Curaçao and St Maarten. The Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER) draws together information on exchange measures in place, the structure and setting of exchange rates, arrangements for payments and receipts, procedures for resident and nonresident accounts, controls on capital transactions, and provisions specific to the financial sector. The data are presented in a clear, easy-to-read tabular format. A summary table allows for simple cross-country comparisons of key features of their exchange and trade regimes. The report’s introduction summarizes recent global trends and developments.