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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses that with inflows of capital showing some further expansion, the combined overall balance of payments surplus of the developing countries remained high. Most of the countries that use the French franc, pound sterling, or the US dollar as their intervention currency continue to do so with no change in the relationship between their own currency and the intervention currency involved. However, some countries like Jamaica re-pegged from sterling to the US dollar. Despite the flexible exchange rate regime operating in relation to the major currencies, measures to curb capital inflows, particularly those on short-term funds taken in 1971 and strengthened thereafter, were not relaxed in general until after mid-1973. The first relaxation came after a strengthening of the US dollar against the major European currencies in the third quarter of the year. During the period under review the Bahamas became a member of the IMF, raising total membership to 126 countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses that although in terms of value world trade increased at a sharp rate, the rise was in only a small degree due to an expansion in the volume of trade. Because of the inflation and the sharp increase in the prices of oil and some other primary products, the value of world trade, rose by some 45 percent or nearly double the rate of growth in 1973. As a result of a steep upward movement of commodity prices in 1973, the terms of trade of the developing countries and other primary producing countries had improved substantially in that year, while those of the industrial countries had been unfavorably affected. In 1974, a tendency toward reversal of these shifts in terms of trade, together with the increase in the price of oil, resulted in a considerable deterioration in the terms of trade of the non-oil producing developing countries and of other primary producing countries. Reduced rates of increase in export volumes also affected the international payments positions of these two groups of countries in 1974.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1976

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1977

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1978

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper highlights some particularly sharp movements in the effective exchange rates of a number of the currencies of major industrial countries during 1978 and early 1979. These changes followed sizable, but less pronounced movements in the effective exchange rates of some of these currencies in 1977. A number of major policy actions affecting exchange rates were announced by the United States during the period under review. In January 1978, the United States reaffirmed that it would intervene to the extent necessary to counter disorderly conditions in the exchange markets and that for this purpose it would utilize the Exchange Stabilization Fund of the US Treasury and the US$20 billion swap network of the US Federal Reserve System. During the period under review, a number of other member countries adopted new exchange arrangements or modified their existing exchange arrangements. These changes reflected a continuation of the trend observed in recent years for members to adapt existing exchange arrangements to their own institutional circumstances and individual policy needs.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1980

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper describes declining activity that was responsible for a weakening of import demand in the industrial countries. There was also a marked reduction in the growth of the volume of imports by the non-oil developing countries, notwithstanding a substantial increase in external borrowing at higher costs and a considerable reduction in the real value of their international reserves arising mainly from rapid inflation. The current account positions of a number of industrial and non-oil developing countries thus became increasingly difficult in 1980. In an overall setting of excess capacity and rising unemployment, demands for protectionist measures in industrial countries intensified during the period under review.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1982

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper highlights information available to the IMF from a number of sources, including that provided in the course of consultation visits to member countries, and it has been prepared in close collaboration with national authorities. Measures intensifying members’ trade restrictions are subject to similar reporting provisions when a member has been granted an arrangement for the use of the IMF’s resources. The report centers on exchange arrangements and exchange restrictions, but it is also more comprehensive in that it presents other external economic policy measures and intergovernmental arrangements that may have balance of payments implications. As in previous reports, questions of definition and jurisdiction have not been raised; the description in the report of a restrictive practice by a member does not imply that it is or is not being maintained consistently with the IMF’s Articles, or that, if subject to Article VIII, it has or has not been approved by the IMF.