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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Fabric of Reform examines the effects of economic reform in three African countries in the CFA franc zone (see box on p. 3)— Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali—all of which gained their independence from France in 1960. Interviews with entrepreneurs, government officials, economists, and citizens help give the viewer insight into the economic gains brought about by reform as well as the challenges these countries continue to face.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1. Foreign investment is important to a country’s development. Ask students to research and report on an industry that was bolstered by foreign investment and the effect that this had on the country’s overall economic development in the decades immediately following the investment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This guide is designed to facilitate classroom use of The Fabric of Reform, a 30-minute educational video created by the International Monetary Fund. It is intended for use with students in economics and international relations courses at the secondary and postsecondary levels.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

To build better lives for their people, policymakers in developing countries must implement reforms that ensure that economic growth keeps pace with increasing populations. These reforms often must be implemented simultaneously or in a carefully planned sequence, and thus they necessitate a very high level of cooperative decision-making.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

Many energy prices in many countries are wrong. They are set at levels that do not reflect environmental damage, notably global warming, air pollution, and various side effects of motor vehicle use. In so doing, many countries raise too much revenue from direct taxes on work effort and capital accumulation and too little from taxes on energy use.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

Fossil fuels are used pervasively to generate electricity, power transportation vehicles, and provide heat for buildings and manufacturing processes. Fuel combustion produces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and various local air pollutants, and use of transportation vehicles also causes road congestion, accidents, and (less important) pavement damage.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

The first part of this chapter discusses why environmental taxes or the equivalent emissions trading systems (ETSs) should be front and center in getting energy prices right, though design details, such as targeting the right base, exploiting the fiscal dividend, and establishing stable prices aligned to environmental damage, are critical. The second part discusses a variety of further design issues, including specifics for power generation and transportation fuels, the role of other instruments, overcoming challenges to price reform, and issues for low-income countries.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter begins with a brief review of the literature on valuing climate change damage from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The heart of the chapter is about measuring damage from the most important harm from local air pollution: human mortality risk.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter consists of three sections focused on the three major, non-pollution-related externalities from motor vehicles: traffic congestion, traffic accidents, and (to a much lesser extent) wear and tear on the road network (relevant for trucks). Other data and assumptions needed to implement the corrective motor fuel tax formulas from Chapter 3 are discussed in the annexes to this chapter.

Ian W.H. Parry, Mr. Dirk Heine, Eliza Lis, and Shanjun Li

Abstract

This chapter summarizes the corrective tax estimates for coal, natural gas, and motor fuels based on the assumptions discussed in previous chapters, both for selected countries and, using ranges of values in heat maps, for all countries, and then discusses the fiscal, health, and environmental impacts of tax reform. Various tables in Annex 6.2 provide full details of this information, country by country, including estimates of current fuel taxes or subsidies.