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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the challenges governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations and address new trade issues. In industrial countries, the reorientation of policies was most apparent in steps taken to liberalize financial markets and foreign direct investment, privatize public enterprises, and deregulate services, particularly in the transportation and communication sectors. Among developing countries, a growing number recognized the merits of outward, market-oriented policies and took steps to liberalize their trade regimes and open their economies to international competition. By and large, the increased focus on market principles in industrial countries did not carry over to trade and industrial policies or, most notable, to the agricultural sector. Despite strong growth performance in 1983–1989, little progress was made in rolling back the protective barriers that had risen during the preceding recessionary period; protection persists in agriculture and declining sectors and has spread to newer high-tech areas.

MERLINDA D. INGCO

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

Mr. Peter J Winglee

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

04/235: IMF Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato’s Statement at the Conclusion of His Visit to Mexico, November 9

Guy Pfeffermann, Bahram Nowzad, Thomas A. Wolf, Mieko Nishimizu, Yung Whee Rhee, Vijay S. Vyas, and Ishrat Husain

This paper describes the effect of IMF-supported adjustment programs on the poor. The paper highlights that IMF-supported adjustment programs have often been misunderstood and have been criticized for seeking excessive reductions in aggregate demand, resulting in unwarranted contractions of output and employment opportunities, and declines in the living standards of people living in poverty. The paper discusses the series of case studies of nine programs in seven countries that the IMF undertook to obtain a balanced and comprehensive appraisal of how the poor fare in the context of IMF-supported adjustment programs.

Ms. Kate Phylaktis and Mahmood Pradhan

We need to understand more deeply a number of critical issues that confront the World Bank and its member countries before we can transform knowledge into effective actions

Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Leslie Lipschitz, and Mr. Thomas H. Mayer

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.