This paper examines the role and impact of taxation on sustainable forest management. It is shown that fiscal instruments neither reinforce nor substitute for traditional regulatory approaches and can actually undermine sustainability. The paper uses the reasoning at the root of the Faustmann solution to draw conclusions on the incentives for sustainable tropical forest exploitation. It proposes a bond mechanism as an alternative market-based instrument to encourage sustainable forest logging while reducing monitoring costs.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Hong Kong SAR has, over the recent years, become an equity trading hub catering to domestic and foreign investors, including increasingly to investors from Mainland China. Most trading is conducted on markets operated by recognized exchange companies, with limited domestic trading happening via automated trading services (ATS) providers in the form of alternative liquidity pools. The introduction of Stock Connect in 2014 enabled investors from Hong Kong (including domestic and foreign) to directly invest in the Shanghai and later Shenzhen markets and investors from the Mainland to directly access the Hong Kong market. Trading via Stock Connect has seen a steady rise over the last few years, increasing the linkages between Hong Kong SAR and the Mainland. Mainland companies currently account for over 60 per cent of market capitalization of the equities traded on the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong (SEHK).
This paper examines the effects of improvements in infrastrucutre on sectoral growth and
firm-level investment, focusing on six Latin American countries. Exploiting the
heterogeneity in the quality of infrastructure across countries and the intrinsic variation in
the dependence of sectors on infrastructure, I find that better infrastructure raises growth
and investment. Improved infrastructure could yield large economic benefits. For
example, if the quality of infrastructure in Colombia increased to the sample median
(Czech Republic), GDP growth would increase by about 0.1 percentage points.
This paper proposes a tractable Sudden Stop model to explain the main patterns in firm level data in a sample of Southeast Asian firms during the Asian crisis. The model, which features trend shocks and financial frictions, is able to generate the main patterns observed in the sample during and following the Asian crisis, including the ensuing credit-less recovery, which are also patterns broadly shared by most Sudden Stop episodes as documented in Calvo et al. (2006). The model also proposes a novel explanation as to why small firms experience steeper declines than their larger peers as documented in this paper. This size effect is generated under the assumption that small firms are growth firms, to which there is support in the data. Trend shocks when combined with financial frictions in this model also generate strong leverage effects in line with what is observed in the sample, and with other observations from the literature.
This paper examines whether the rapid growing firm patenting activity in China is associated
with real economic outcome by building a unique dataset uniting detailed firm balance sheet
information with firm patent data for the period of 1998-2007. We find strong evidence that
within-firm increases in patent stock are associated with increases in firm size, exports, and
more interestingly, total factor productivity and new product revenue share. Event studies
using first-time patentees as the treatment group and non-patenting firms selected based on
Propensity-Score Matching method as the control group also demonstrate similar effects
following initial patent application. We also find that although state-owned enterprises
(SOEs) on average have lower level of productivity and are less innovative compared to their
non-state-owned peers, increases in patent stock tend to be associated with higher
productivity growth among SOEs, especially for patents with lower innovative content. The
latter could reflect the preferential government policies enjoyed by SOEs.
This paper examines the role and impact of taxation on sustainable forest management. It is shown that fiscal instruments neither reinforce nor substitute for traditional regulatory approaches. Far from encouraging more sustainable forest management, fiscal instruments such as an inappropriate tax policy can actually undermine it. The paper uses the arguments at the root of the Faustmann solution to draw conclusions on the incentives for sustainable tropical forest exploitation. The paper also proposes a bond mechanism as an alternative market-based instrument to encourage sustainable forest logging while reducing monitoring costs.
Andreas Fagereng, Luigi Guiso, Mr. Davide Malacrino, and Luigi Pistaferri
We provide a systematic analysis of the properties of individual returns to wealth using twelve years of
population data from Norway’s administrative tax records. We document a number of novel results.
First, during our sample period individuals earn markedly different average returns on their financial
assets (a standard deviation of 14%) and on their net worth (a standard deviation of 8%). Second,
heterogeneity in returns does not arise merely from differences in the allocation of wealth between safe
and risky assets: returns are heterogeneous even within asset classes. Third, returns are positively
correlated with wealth: moving from the 10th to the 90th percentile of the financial wealth distribution
increases the return by 3 percentage points - and by 17 percentage points when the same exercise is
performed for the return to net worth. Fourth, wealth returns exhibit substantial persistence over time.
We argue that while this persistence partly reflects stable differences in risk exposure and assets scale,
it also reflects persistent heterogeneity in sophistication and financial information, as well as
entrepreneurial talent. Finally, wealth returns are (mildly) correlated across generations. We discuss the
implications of these findings for several strands of the wealth inequality debate.