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  • Bankruptcy; Liquidation x
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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper discusses the findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for India. Since the 2011 Financial Sector Assessment Program, India has recorded strong growth in both economic activity and financial assets, supported by important structural reforms and terms of trade gains. Increased diversification, commercial orientation, and technology-driven inclusion have supported growth in the financial industry, backed by improved legal, regulatory, and supervisory frameworks. Yet, the financial sector is facing considerable challenges, and economic growth has recently slowed down. High nonperforming assets (NPAs) and slow deleveraging and repair of corporate balance sheets are testing the resilience of the banking system, and holding back investment and growth. The authorities have been pursuing policies to accelerate the process of NPA resolution.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper highlights Bulgaria’s state-owned enterprises (SOEs) sector and to assess its performance in a regional perspective. A detailed and rich firm-level dataset of state-owned and private firms was compiled for this note to compare key performance indicators of SOEs to private firms in the same sector and to similar firms in Croatia and Romania for a regional comparison. In some network industries, such as energy, SOEs are heavily loss-making. Large amounts of debt have been piled up notably in the energy and transport sectors which, to the extent that it is classified outside the general government accounts, can pose significant risk to public finances in the form of contingent liabilities if the SOEs run into financial difficulties. SOE profitability and resource allocation efficiency largely lag private firms in the same sectors, even when isolating SOEs engaged in competitive market activities and hence classified outside of general government. Coupled with comparably poor output quality, these challenges have the potential to impair competitiveness and productivity across the economy.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note discusses the findings and recommendations in the Financial Sector Assessment Program for Spain in the areas of insolvency and creditor rights. The regime for creditor and debtor rights largely conforms to international best practices. With respect to creditor and debtor rights, the registration of real estate mortgages is efficient, reliable, and cost-effective. Owing to nonperforming loans, real estate foreclosure has been extensively used in Spain. Real estate collateral plays a critical role in Spain owing to the fact that a very large percentage of loans are collateralized with real estate. The institutional framework supporting insolvency and creditor rights has been strengthened but requires further reinforcement and more resources.
Mr. Robert P Flood
The paper discusses a model in which growth is a negative function of fiscal burden. Moreover, growth discontinuously switches from high to low as the fiscal burden reaches a critical level. The paper provides an overview of key elements of corporate bankruptcy codes and practice around the world that are relevant to the debate on sovereign debt restructuring. It also describes the broad trends in international financial integration for a sample of industrial countries and explains the cross-country and time-series variation in the size of international balance sheets.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus recently spoke with the editors of the IMF Survey about events over the past 13 years, as well as about future developments in the international monetary system and the evolution of the IMF. The interview will be published in two parts—the first, which follows, focuses on developments since 1987. The second part, which looks to the future, will be published in the next issue of the IMF Survey, dated January 10, 2000.
Mr. Marco A. Piñón-Farah
This paper reviews recent experience with both sovereign and private bond restructurings. It also summarizes the literature on private bond restructurings and describes the “typical” process for a voluntary exchange of new bonds for existing obligations. From this information some conclusions are drawn as to the possibility of concluding voluntary restructuring agreements for sovereign bonds within relatively short periods of time.
Ivailo Izvorski
This paper analyzes the determinants of the recovery ratios and survival times (time until default) for U. S. corporate bonds. We show that seniority, the type of industry in which the firm operates, and the type of restructuring attempted after default are the major determinants of the cross-sectional distribution of individual bond recovery ratios. On an industry level, physical asset obsolescence, industry growth, and industry concentration are the most important factors. We also analyze survival times for corporate bonds and find that initial time to maturity and the general economic conditions at maturity and default explain a large fraction of the cross-sectional variation of survival times.