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Daniel C. Hardy and Ashok Kumar Lahiri

The IMF Working Papers series is designed to make IMF staff research available to a wide audience. Almost 300 Working Papers are released each year, covering a wide range of theoretical and analytical topics, including balance of payments, monetary and fiscal issues, global liquidity, and national and international economic developments.

Stefan W. Schmitz, Michael Sigmund, Ms. Laura Valderrama, and Udaibir S. Das

This paper presents new evidence on the empirical relationship between bank solvency and funding costs. Building on a newly constructed dataset drawing on supervisory data for 54 large banks from six advanced countries over 2004–2013, we use a simultaneous equation approach to estimate the contemporaneous interaction between solvency and liquidity. Our results show that liquidity and solvency interactions can be more material than suggested by the existing empirical literature. A 100 bps increase in regulatory capital ratios is associated with a decrease of bank funding costs of about 105 bps. A 100 bps increase in funding costs reduces regulatory capital buffers by 32 bps. We also find evidence of non-linear effects between solvency and funding costs. Understanding the impact of solvency on funding costs is particularly relevant for stress testing. Our analysis suggests that neglecting the dynamic features of the solvency-liquidity nexus in the 2014 EU-wide stress test could have led to a significant underestimation of the impact of stress on bank capital ratios.

Aymanns Christoph, Caceres Carlos, Daniel Christina, Schumacher Liliana, and Das Udaibir S.

Understanding the interaction between bank solvency and funding cost is a crucial pre-requisite for stress-testing. In this paper we study the sensitivity of bank funding cost to solvency measures while controlling for various other measures of bank fundamentals. The analysis includes two measures of bank funding cost: (a) average funding cost and (b) interbank funding cost as a proxy of wholesale funding cost. The main findings are: (1) Solvency is negatively and significantly related to measures of funding cost, but the effect is small in magnitude. (2) On average, the relationship is stronger for interbank funding cost than for average funding cost. (3) During periods of stress interbank funding cost is more sensitive to solvency than in normal times. Finally, (4) the relationship between funding cost and solvency appears to be non-linear, with higher sensitivity of funding cost at lower levels of solvency.

Ms. Hiroko Oura and Miss Liliana B Schumacher

This paper highlights that one of the most dramatic developments in the 20th century was the entry of women into economic and political spheres previously occupied almost exclusively by men. Although women are making progress in eliminating gender disparities, they still lag men in the workplace and in the halls of government. These gaps are found throughout the world, but are particularly pronounced in developing economies. So far, the greatest success has been in reducing education and health disparities and the least in increasing women’s economic and political influence.


“How much capital should shareholders be required to invest 11 in their bank?” is a question that has been asked for a half century or more. This concern for the adequacy of bank capital is part of the broader regulation of banks to assure their solvency. The length of time that capital adequacy has been debated suggests the extreme difficulty, really the impossibility, of objectively deciding what is an adequate amount of capital, or what is the appropriate ratio of capital to assets, liabilities, deposits, or risk assets—whichever denominator is eventually chosen. Nevertheless, this does not diminish the importance of capital adequacy as an operational norm for assuring bank solvency.

Mario I. Blejer and Miss Liliana B Schumacher

A loss of solvency increases central bank vulnerability, reducing the credibility of commitments to defend a nominal regime, including an exchange rate peg. This paper develops a methodology to assess central bank solvency and exposure to risk. The measure, based on Value-at-Risk, is frequently used to evaluate commercial risk. The paper emphasizes that the ability to sustain nominal commitments cannot be gauged by focusing only on selected accounts (such as reserves), but requires a comprehensive solvency and vulnerability analysis of the monetary authorities’ complete portfolio (including off-balance-sheet operations). The suggested measure has powerful reporting value and its disclosure could improve monitoring of sovereign solvency risk.

International Monetary Fund

This paper presents a Financial System Stability Assessment Update, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on the Securities Regulation, Insolvency and Creditor Rights Systems, and Payment Systems in Colombia. Overall, the financial sector appears relatively stable and resilient to potential adverse shocks. The Superintendency of Banks lacks sufficient autonomy and independence while the current legal framework fails to effectively protect either bank supervisors or the Superintendent. Risk-based regulation and consolidated supervision remain key issues for the future.