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Shu-Chin Yang and Samuel Lipkowitz

This paper examines the importance of national planning for economic development of a country. The paper highlights that when World War II began, Soviet Russia was the only country engaged in systematic development planning, and then only since 1929, when its First Five-Year Plan was approved. At the end of the War, Asian countries that either had, or were about to, become independent, embraced planning to a much greater extent than countries in any other region.

C. J. Martin

Writers on development organization often advocate the setting up of programing units in various government departments, each making plans for a single sector of the economy. But many governments of developing countries do not have the manpower for such ambitious spreading of rare expertise. The author suggests that it would often be wiser to concentrate available skills in a Central Projects Bureau.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The Web edition of the IMF Survey is updated several times a week, and contains a wealth of articles about topical policy and economic issues in the news. Access the latest IMF research, read interviews, and listen to podcasts given by top IMF economists on important issues in the global economy. www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/home.aspx

Norman Hicks and Anne Kubisch

This paper examines the impact of the World Bank on the financial markets and developing countries. The sound financial structure of the Bank rests on its conservative loan-to-capital ratio. Its large liquidity is an assurance to investors in Bank bonds that their investments are assured of liquidity in case the need arises. To cope with their payments difficulties, the heavily indebted developing countries have adopted more cautious fiscal and monetary policies, limited wage increases, and reduced domestic consumption and investment.

Uwe Deichmann and Indermit Gill

Cracks in the System: World Economy Under Stress" explores the rapidly changing institutional and policymaking landscape around a financial crisis that now threatens a deep and prolonged global recession. The lead article looks at how the world got into the mess and what to do about it, both now and over the medium term. Other articles review options for changing the rules of world finance, examine the case for modernizing the way countries coordinate their policies, and try to draw some lessons from past financial crises. The "other crisis" of high food and fuel prices is also assessed, as the effects extend past the mid-2008 price peak. "People in Economics" profiles Robert Shiller; "Picture This" illustrates how middle-income economies can reach high-income status; "Back to Basics" looks at all the components that make up gross national product; and "Country Focus" spotlights Saudi Arabia.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that the financial activity of the IMF reached a new peak in the first three quarters of 1981 in terms of the number of arrangements with members involving high conditionality on the use of the IMF’s resources, the total amount of resources committed under existing arrangements, and the magnitude of actual purchases. There were 25 stand-by arrangements in effect at the end of September 1981, as well as 16 extended arrangements. The total amount of resources made available to member countries in the first nine months of 1981 was SDR 9.3 billion.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines the new private pension automatic enrollment provisions in Turkey. The newly enacted automatic enrollment provisions have several advantages relative to the current voluntary private pension system. However, they have several weaknesses that risk endangering the reform in the long term. The hybrid input-output is not complete without the establishment of a public procurement board and periodic auctioning of pension services. Employers are unlikely to be more skilled than individuals in choosing pension plans for their workers. The IMF staff advice is to complete the hybrid input-output model along the lines recommended by the World Bank by establishing a procurement board for pension services for undecided participants.
International Monetary Fund