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Philippe Bourcier and Mohsen Shirazi

Many developing countries could use natural gas to reduce oil imports or allow larger oil exports. What are the economic, institutional, and contractual issues that need attention?

International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes growth and recovery in Mongolia during transition. The paper describes the major sources of economic growth in Mongolia since the early 1980s in the context of a basic growth accounting framework. It discusses Mongolia’s post-transition growth performance relative to other transition countries. This paper also summarizes the main weaknesses of the existing national accounts statistics and reviews the recent developments and prospects for the main components of GDP.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Guinea during 1990–98. Economic developments were dominated by the coming on stream of important oil fields in 1992 and 1996, and the subsequent breakdown in fiscal discipline and transparency. In response to the January 1994 devaluation of the CFA franc, there was also an upturn in the non-oil sector, led by intensification in logging activity that resulted in an unsustainable level of timber output in 1997. Real GDP growth averaged 8.5 percent a year in 1992–95, and rose to 29 percent in 1996.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues reviews economic development in Azerbaijan during 1995–99. The Azerbaijan authorities began to implement a far-reaching economic reform program in 1995. As a result, the serious macroeconomic imbalances, which plagued the economy in the early years of the transition, were largely eliminated. Both 1997 and 1998 were characterized by financial stability and strong real growth: average consumer price inflation over this period was close to zero and real GDP growth averaged 8 percent a year.
Mr. Alonso A Segura Vasi, Walter Zarate, Mr. Gonzalo C Pastor Campos, and Mr. Ulrich H Klueh
This paper attempts to offer specific inputs to the debate on local content promotion in the oil industry, using the specific case of São Tomé and Príncipe as point of reference. Our approach emphasizes inter-sectoral linkages and institutional pre-conditions for local content promotion. Based on an Input-Output description of the economy, we quantify the consistency between the prospective oil sector development and the growth of other sectors of the economy. We also assess a number of sectoral policies and "niche" activities within the oil industry that would maximize the local benefits from oil exploration.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

This paper describes the World Bank’s mission in a changing world. Conditionality of the Bank is different in several ways as it operates over a longer timeframe and relates to the more comfortable issues of economic growth rather than financial stabilization. The longer timeframes of the Bank’s programs require reaching agreement with borrowing countries on the desirability of maintaining the course that’s being advocated for an extended period. Many developing countries are unduly sensitive about the possibility that they may have to exercise their sovereignty more forcefully in the future.

The Trinidad and Tobago economy is the largest among member countries of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), with a gross domestic product in 2000 of almost $8 billion.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix paper outlines the recent developments in the political and security situation in Congo. It reviews economic performance during 1970–2003, including in the context of IMF-supported programs. The paper also reviews recent developments in public finance management, and examines the constraints on growth and poverty reduction. The sources of economic growth during 1970–2003 are analyzed. The paper also discusses the feasibility of an oil fiscal rule, and notes some key lessons and challenges for the Congo.

International Monetary Fund

The Nigerian economy remained strong, with a non-oil real GDP of 8.3 percent and an overall real GDP of 6.7 percent. A modest fiscal consolidation took place in 2011 as a response to the substantial monetary tightening by the Central Bank of Nigeria and moderation of food prices. Banks showed continued improvement in financial stability. Executive Directors commended the authorities for countercyclical policies. However, they emphasized the need for policies that safeguard macroeconomic stability and ensure inclusive growth.

International Monetary Fund

The 2006 Article IV Consultation on the Republic of Tajikistan explains political and economic developments. Although Tajikistan’s external debt profile has improved significantly, total public and publicly guaranteed debt is projected to increase significantly, mainly because of large project-related disbursements from China. Any financial resources directed to the private sector, particularly if subsidized, should be channeled through the budget in a transparent manner. Executive Directors welcomed the authorities’ intention to put in place a debt management strategy that will prevent public debt from exceeding 60 percent of GDP.