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Mr. Holger Floerkemeier and Mariusz A. Sumlinski
In recent years, the South Caucasus and Central Asia countries (CCA-6) have received significant foreign exchange inflows. While a healthy reserve buffer is desirable to selfinsure against external crises, holding international reserves also involves costs. We analyze the adequacy of CCA-6 reserves using widely recognized rules of thumb, and simulate optimal reserve levels applying the Jeanne (2007) model. Both the adequacy measures and the model-based simulations indicate that, with the exception of Tajikistan, CCA-6 reserves had increased to broadly comfortable levels by 2006. More recently, reserve adequacy has been tested in Kazakhstan, which has been affected by the 2007 global liquidity crunch.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Following is an excerpt of a recent IMF press release. The full text is available on the IMF’s website ( under “news” or on request from the IMF’s Public Affairs Division (fax: (202) 623-6278).

International Monetary Fund

This paper presents the key findings of the Republic of Azerbaijan’s 2010 Article IV Consultation. In 2009, overall GDP grew at 9.3 percent, but non-oil GDP growth slowed from 16 percent to 3 percent, fiscal and export revenues fell by more than 30 percent, and credit and liquidity conditions tightened substantially. Owing to the authorities’ appropriate policy response, the exchange rate remained stable, inflation dropped dramatically, official poverty rates continued to fall, and financial stability was maintained.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that recent economic developments in Azerbaijan have been favorable. In 2013, a stabilization of oil output and strong non-oil growth at nearly 10 percent helped lift overall GDP growth to 5.8 percent. Inflation remained low, averaging 2.4 percent, restrained by soft food prices and a stable exchange rate. The impact of regional market turbulence in early 2014 has been limited, with few signs of lower manat demand or capital flight. Economic prospects over the near and medium term are positive, if underpinned by fiscal consolidation and supported by reforms to spur non-oil private sector activity.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Republic of Azerbaijan