Benin’s Civilian Central Government (excluding education, health, and police) is organized into a career structure with five employment grades, each divided into multiple levels. Within grades employees ascend automatically after two years at each level. Once at the top of an employment grade, a promotion is required to move to the next grade. The number of promotions is limited by predetermined percentages (from 40 percent to 10 percent for the intermediary to the outstanding grade).
Civil service reform is often essential to bring about governanceimprovements that are needed for sustainable poverty reduction.A workshop hosted by the World Bank and the IMF in September 2001provided a forum to review the effectiveness of Bank-Fund advice and programs on civil service reform, and to propose ways to improve jointefforts in coming years. Programs in 11 countries were examined, (Benin,Bolivia, Cambodia, Macedonia, Mali, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tanzania,Yemen, Zambia), and macrofiscal and structural outcomes of Bank-Fund workin those countries considered. This book is a joint publication betweenthe IMF and the World Bank.
This paper sets out the principal aspects of civil service reform that were discussed at a workshop for World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF, or the Fund) staff on September 6, 2001. 2 The objective of the workshop was to strengthen collaboration between the Bank and the Fund in order to achieve greater effectiveness in Bank- and Fund-supported programs in this area. About 60 staff, including managers and country teams, participated in the discussions. Both institutions recognize the centrality of a competent, affordable, and accountable public administration. The central question is how to bring this about.
Reforming the civil service is not a goal in its own right. Moreover, there is no single best “model” of public administration. Given vested interests that must be confronted, civil service reforms must be justified to policymakers and the public by their impact on poverty and on the effectiveness of government—either directly in terms of service delivery, or indirectly through their impact on macroeconomic stability or improved economic and social policy formulation and implementation.
The Mongolian financial system is dominated by commercial banks. The nonbank financial sector, including insurance and the stock market, is small. The current level of dollarization exposes Mongolia’s financial system to risk. The authorities are in the process of establishing the Development Bank of Mongolia as a state-owned limited liability company. They should carefully consider the options for financing the Development Bank and their budget and other implications. Aggregate financial soundness indicators for the banking system show a partial recovery from the crisis.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes economic development in Mongolia during 1997–99. Economic performance in 1997 was impressive. Aided by strong political support for rapid reform and a generally favorable external environment, financial policies were tightened, and significant reductions in inflation were achieved. Broad-based structural reforms were also undertaken, including steps to restore confidence in the banking system. However, conditions changed abruptly in 1998 as deterioration in the external environment and domestic political problems combined to erode the momentum for reform.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
A three-year arrangement for Mongolia under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF)
was approved on May 24, 2017, in an amount equivalent to SDR 314.5054 million
(435 percent of quota, or about $425 million). The arrangement is part of a $5.5 billion
multi-donor financing package that supports the authorities’ Economic Recovery Plan.
The extended arrangement is subject to quarterly reviews.
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix presents an overview of the fiscal developments in Mongolia since the late 1990s. It assesses the “quality” of the ongoing fiscal adjustment. The paper examines the dramatic expansion of bank credit to the private sector over the last five years, asking what its sources are and what its consequences may be, particularly for the maintenance of macroeconomic and financial stability. The paper also describes recent developments in the garment sector in Mongolia.