This Selected Issues paper focuses on the challenges of small middle-income countries (MIC) in sSub-Saharan Africa (SSA) comprising Cape Verde, Namibia, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The IMF report summarizes the analytic underpinnings that support the IMF staff’s advice on policies to strengthen macroeconomic stability, foster more inclusive growth, and enhance the resilience of their financial systems. It recommends that macroeconomic policies should aim to rebuild policy buffers to help cushion against large external shocks especially given the prevalence of pegged exchange rate regimes in these economies.
This Joint Staff Advisory Note focuses on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper–II for Cape Verde. Important progress was made in poverty reduction, but rural poverty still remains high. The strategy reports that Cape Verde is on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal of halving extreme poverty by 2015. Despite progress made to date, the gap between urban and rural income growth is still wide; thus, efforts to raise rural incomes further and a more effective design of social inclusion programs are needed.
The development policy of Cape Verde has evolved in a setting of severe structural constraints and persistent restrictions, with potential impediments to growth. The ongoing process of change adopts a transformation strategy closely linked to the consolidation of a democracy based on sound institutions. Democratic strengthening is essential and presupposes the consolidation of good governance as a key factor in any development strategy. Executive Directors consider that effective implementation of the poverty reduction and growth strategy has been made in Cape Verde.
The Joint Staff Advisory Note (JSAN) reviews the First Annual Progress Report (APR) of Cape Verde on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) under the Policy Support Instrument (PSI). The JSAN recommends that the timeliness and reliability of data for the monitoring and evaluation of the PRSP be improved. The APR focuses on recent steps and reform priorities to strengthen public financial management and budget processes. The report gives particular emphasis to measures undertaken and plans to strengthen audit processes, budget prioritization, procurement practices, and revenue collection.
This paper focuses on Cape Verde’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS). The GPRS is part of a broader strategic planning exercise that has been under way in Cape Verde and has as main pillars the Grand Options of the Plan 2002–05 (GOP) and the National Development Plan (NDP). The link between the NDP and the GPRS ensures global coherence of the planning instruments, thus facilitating management and monitoring of the various programs, and avoids duplication of efforts and procedures.
This paper focuses on Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy Paper–II (GPRSP II) for Cape Verde. The GPRSP II is formulated with reference to five major strategic aims concerning good governance, human capital, competitiveness, infrastructure building, and social cohesion. In identifying and pursuing these aims, the country seeks to improve its performance with respect to the established objectives and targets. The central objective of poverty reduction rests primarily upon structural policies linked to the promotion of inclusive economic growth, complemented by redistributive policies that are socially compensatory and focused on groups with high vulnerability.
This report summarizes the First Annual Progress Report on the Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (PRGS) program. It assesses the status of the strategy implementation and monitoring mechanism, and emphasizes the need to face enormous development challenges and curb poverty and unemployment. It reviews the agenda of structural reforms and also lists the sectoral achievements toward the five strategic aims. It provides a brief description of the monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for implementation in some sectors.
Mr. Paulo Drummond, Mr. Vimal V Thakoor, and Shu Yu
Africa will account for 80 percent of the projected 4 billion increase in the global population by 2100. The accompanying increase in its working age population creates a window of opportunity, which if properly harnessed, can translate into higher growth and yield a demographic dividend. We quantify the potential demographic dividend based on the experience of other regions. The dividend will vary across countries, depending on such factors as the initial working age population as well as the speed and magnitude of demographic transition. It will be critical to ensure that the right supportive policies, including those fostering human capital accumulation and job creation, are in place to translate this opportunity into concrete economic growth.
The measurement of the efficiency of public education expenditure using parametric and non-parametric methods has proven challenging. This paper seeks to overcome the difficulties of earlier studies by using a hybrid approach to measure the efficiency of secondary education spending in emerging and developing economies. The approach accounts for the impact of the level of development on education outcomes by constructing different efficiency frontiers for lower- and higher-income economies. We find evidence of large potential gains in enrollment rates by improving efficiency. These are largest in lower-income economies, especially in Africa. Reallocating expenditure to reduce student-to-teacher ratios (where these are high) and improving the quality of institutions (as measured by the "governance effectiveness" indicator in the World bank's Governance Indicators database) could help improve the efficiency of education spending. Easing the access to education facilities and reducing income inequality (as measured by the Gini coefficient) could also help improve efficiency.