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International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes the reasons behind the relatively low rates of savings in Bulgaria and prospects for their evolution over the medium term. The paper argues that low saving rates largely reflect the current stage of transition—characterized by still low income levels, incomplete structural reforms, the memories of the financial and banking crises of 1996–97, and an adverse demographic structure. An analysis of prospective saving rates indicates that as the transition process advances, saving rates may increase by 5 percentage points over the medium term.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for Bulgaria highlights that the rapid credit expansion has not raised significant financial stability issues, but has been a key factor in the sharp weakening of the external current account. Although the deficit has been mostly financed by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, deficits of this magnitude cannot be sustained as privatization inflows will dry up with the completion of the government’s privatization program. Concurrent with the surge in bank credit, the external current account has weakened, reaching a deficit of 8½ percent of GDP in 2003.

International Monetary Fund

This paper discusses Bulgaria’s prospects for converging to the living standards of the more advanced members of the European Union (EU). The unfavorable economic environment of the early 1990s and the economic crisis in 1996–97 hurt Bulgaria’s output, employment, and investment. Following the crisis, structural reforms and a sound macroeconomic framework set the stage for a sustained recovery. The structure of the Bulgaria economy has shifted markedly over the last decade, and investment has become the main engine of growth.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Supplement; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bulgaria

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

In May 2004, the European Union (EU) undertook its most significant enlargement to date, accepting Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia as new members. With the recent announcement that Bulgaria and Romania will join in 2007, the EU will soon comprise no fewer than 27 states. Apart from Cyprus and Malta, all the new members are located in central and eastern Europe (CEE-10).

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
Mr. Stanley Fischer

The IMF’s Executive Board on May 15 approved an augmentation of Turkey’s three-year Stand-By Arrangement by SDR 6.4 billion (about $8 billion), bringing the total to SDR 15 billion (about $19 billion). The full text of Press Release 01/23, including details of Turkey’s economic program, is available on the IMF’s website (www.imf.org).

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

The IMF Research Bulletin, a quarterly publication, selectively summarizes research and analytical work done by various departments at the IMF, and also provides a listing of research documents and other research-related activities, including conferences and seminars. The Bulletin is intended to serve as a summary guide to research done at the IMF on various topics, and to provide a better perspective on the analytical underpinnings of the IMF’s operational work.