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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Abstract

This is the 64th issue of the AREAER. It provides a description of the foreign exchange arrangements, exchange and trade systems, and capital controls of all IMF member countries. It also provides information on the operation of foreign exchange markets and controls on international trade. It describes controls on capital transactions and measures implemented in the financial sector, including prudential measures. In addition, it reports on exchange measures imposed by member countries for security reasons. A single table provides a snapshot of the exchange and trade systems of all IMF member countries. The Overview describes in detail how the general trend toward foreign exchange liberalization continued during 2012, alongside a strengthening of the financial sector regulatory framework. The AREAER is available in several formats. The Overview in print and online, and the detailed information for each of the 191 member countries and territories is included on a CD that accompanies the printed Overview and in an online database, AREAER Online. In addition to the information on the exchange and trade system of IMF member countries in 2012, AREAER Online contains historical data published in previous issues of the AREAER. It is searchable by year, country, and category of measure and allows cross country comparisons for time series.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses economic and financial difficulties that will undoubtedly continue to confront them, although it is to be expected that renewed expansion in world trade will ease the decline in export earnings which they have recently suffered. Much effort will be needed nationally and internationally to create the conditions which will enable these countries to reap the full advantages of growth combined with domestic stability and external equilibrium. In this endeavor, those countries which conduct their transactions in convertible currencies, and which have relatively simple exchange systems, will be in a better position to cope with the financial problems arising out of urgent needs for development. Although many obstacles remain, there is in the world today an increased understanding of the issues involved, and the possibility of achieving the full benefits of a multilateral system is now greater than at any previous time in the IMF’s history.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper focuses on progress in reducing or eliminating exchange restrictions that has been substantial and has been made on a wide front; retrogressions have been comparatively few. The beneficial effects of the widening scope of currency convertibility have been felt in many areas, and the evolution toward freer, more orderly, and less discriminatory trade and payments has been strongly supported by a high level of economic activity, expanding international trade, and the general maintenance of monetary stability. Recent developments in trade and payments have not merely reduced the scope of restrictions; they have also changed the nature of these restrictions. Of key importance was the introduction of external convertibility by several countries at the end of 1958. Quotations for externally convertible currencies in exchange markets throughout the world have shown only minor fluctuations in the past twelve months. Most Western European currencies have generally been strong in terms of the US dollar.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses that total world trade rose significantly, particularly because of sustained European demand. With some exceptions, prices of basic products fell during the period. In this economic environment, developments in exchange markets became of focal interest to the IMF. The cumulative effect during recent years of relaxing surrender requirements and restrictions on payments has been very largely to restore to exchange markets their traditional function of reflecting the trend of international financial pressures. The difficulties that several countries faced in coordinating their internal and external monetary policies accentuated the international movements of short-term funds which had become increasingly important in preceding years. In particular, the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland received large amounts of foreign funds. Some countries continued to reduce their restrictions, particularly in the direction of simplifying exchange systems and liberalizing imports. These moves made a contribution toward sustaining the volume of world trade.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1962

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper outlines among the underdeveloped countries, some experienced an improvement in their balance of payments positions, enabling them to reduce restrictions on payments. Many of them, however, still had difficult balance of payments problems—because of such factors as rapid development and growth, a deterioration in their terms of trade, inflation, and other causes—and continued to apply exchange and import restrictions, or introduced additional restrictions, in an attempt to avoid undue pressure on the exchange rate and a drain on reserves. Taking a broad view of developments in the field of exchange restrictions during the past twelve months, it can be stated that it was a year of progress. The international payments system was strengthened further, and the net effect was a comparative calm in international exchange markets notwithstanding severe fluctuations on stock exchanges. The payments position and prospects of a range of countries enabled them to reduce and in some cases virtually to eliminate restrictions. Other countries that continued to experience balance of payments difficulties, such as India, Indonesia, and Ceylon, increased their import restrictions.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions 1964

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper outlines the changes that took place in restrictive systems were largely a reflection of shifts in the balance of payments positions and outlook of member countries. The country surveys show that these changes were numerous. Several countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States, took steps to moderate capital outflows. The range of restrictive devices applied by some countries appears to have widened in recent years. The use of advance import deposit requirements has spread, and more countries are applying surcharges to imports when in balance of payments difficulties. In contrast, a number of member countries whose restrictive systems have been progressively liberalized in recent years have relied on internal measures to meet temporary balance of payments difficulties rather than resort to restrictions. By making use of the IMF’s resources several member countries have been able to maintain or extend their liberalization policies.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses developments in individual countries reflected domestic policies, but also the way in which their economies were affected by international economic developments. Generally, countries that have assumed the obligations of Article VIII of the IMF Agreement—and which as noted in the last Report account for some 70 per cent of world trade—were making less use of restrictions, and some were able further to reduce that use in 1965–1966. At the outset of 1965 there were a number of disturbing tendencies in the international payments situation. The growth of international trade was noticeably slackening, and the prices of primary products were declining. Among the industrial countries export increases in 1965 were generally largest for those whose payments positions were already strong and whose restrictions on payments had been largely eliminated. Thus, the member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC) had a very satisfactory expansion of exports; this was partly associated with economic developments in France and Italy, where some easing of domestic demand released resources for export.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Abstract

This paper discusses relaxation of restrictions in most cases that applied to trade; in some countries there was also liberalization with respect to invisibles. Yugoslavia introduced a major revision of its trade and payments system at the beginning of 1967 and has initiated steps to reduce its reliance on bilateral trade and payments arrangements; this took on greater significance because economic decision making within Yugoslavia has been decentralized further and made more responsive to market forces. India, by measures associated with devaluation, carried out a major simplification of export promotion measures and a substantial relaxation of restrictions on imports. Restrictions on imports were relaxed in other countries, including Austria, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Morocco, Rwanda, South Africa, and Uruguay. Progress in working off commercial and financial arrears occurred in several countries; particularly noteworthy were the starts made by Ghana and Indonesia. Colombia and Pakistan, each having progressively liberalized through most of the year, re-imposed import restrictions near the end of the year; Colombia, however, introduced new regulations in March 1967, which would permit a measure of liberalization of imports.