One billion people, half the population of the developing world, live on diets that are deficient in essential calories. One third of them are children below the age of ten. This article discusses the magnitude of the problem, and reviews the economic implications of specific intervention programs designed to solve it.
'Global Governance: Who's in Charge?' examines the challenges—financial, health, environmental, and trade—facing the international community in the 21st century and asks whether today';s system of global governance is equipped to cope with them. The lead article asserts that the system that served as a model for much of the 20th century is out of date, and it explores what needs to be done to strengthen it. Other articles on this theme look at the recent U.S. subprime market crisis, the differences between financial crises of the 19th and 20th centuries and what future crises will look like, the need for a stronger system of multilateral trade, and how global health threats can be handled. 'People in Economics' profiles Michael Kremer; 'Picture This' describes the changing aid landscape; 'Country Focus' spotlights the United Arab Emirates; and 'Straight Talk' examines the impact of high food prices. Also in this issue, articles examine development in Africa, and 'backcasting' data in Latin America.
David E. Bloom, David Canning, and Dean T. Jamison
This paper presents a snapshot of changes in the world’s health and demographic conditions. The paper highlights that in most parts of the world, individuals are healthier and living longer, thanks to improved health services and living conditions and the more widespread use of immunization, antibiotics, and better contraceptives. Although this trend is likely to continue, hopes are fading in some regions where progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s, primarily as a result of the AIDS epidemic. Moreover, most regions of the developing world will not reach the Millennium Development Goals for health by 2015.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The past 150 years have witnessed a global transformation in human health that has enabled people to live longer, healthier, more productive lives and boosted rates of economic growth worldwide. While these trends look likely to continue, progress slowed or stopped in the 1990s in some regions, primarily as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. On April 5, David Canning, a professor of economics and international health at Harvard University; Markus Haacker, a senior economist with the UN Economic Commission for Africa; and Dean Jamison, a fellow with the U.S. National Institutes of Health, examined the links between health, wealth, and human welfare. Abdoulaye Bio-Tchané, Director of the IMF’s African Department, moderated the discussion.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) has been prepared in a context of major political changes. Interim PRSP has come in the midst of a difficult economic situation, marked by falling output and incomes. The strategy seeks to strengthen the processes of consolidating peace and security; rehabilitating victims of the crisis; and rebuilding and reviving the economy. The PRSP places particular emphasis on monitoring and evaluating poverty reduction activities. Formulation and implementation of an appropriate decentralization policy will contribute to the success of the PRSP process.
The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on the Republic of Mozambique review the country’s macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction, and external financing needs and major sources of financing. It is essential to guarantee that mechanisms of democratization are present within the political parties and to develop participative democracy. Monitoring and evaluation is also a means of keeping abreast of not only the government, but also organizations in civil society, the Mozambican legislature, and the cooperation partners.
This Annual Progress Report reviews the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and Economic and Social Plan for 2007 for Mozambique. The report presents the new simplified structure adopted in the Review of the First Half of 2007. In the international context, the evolution of the international economy is presented, which allows a visualization of the international economic conditions in which the country has implemented its economic and social policy. The activities of the environment and the science and technology sectors are also described.
This paper examines the first annual report on the implementation of Madagascar’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The report reviews the status of achievements on policy measures, action plans, as well as reforms concerning the Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC). It covers the first year of PRSP implementation corresponding to the period from July 2003 to June 2004. It also highlights the connections between the achievements and objectives, programs, and indicators.