International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The paper discusses development of smallholder tea cultivation and a new breed of planters in Kenya. As the work of land consolidation and registration progressed in Kenya, tea planting in areas that were ecologically suitable became increasingly popular. The paper highlights that with the help of some US$3 million from the International Development Association, about 900 miles of tea collection and factory access roads are being constructed in the various tea-growing areas of Kenya, and some 15 small road maintenance units are being established and equipped.
This paper examines the short- and long-run effects of exchange market reform in developing countries. The first part reviews the recent experience of Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka with exchange market reform. The second part studies analytically the short-run dynamics of the parallel market premium and the money supply upon unification, when the post-reform regime consists of either a pure float or a managed float. The third part discusses the impact of unification on inflation and quasi-fiscal deficits, and identifies a variety of implicit taxes and subsidies that must be taken into account in assessing the longer-run effects of exchange market reform.
This paper concludes that the existing framework remains broadly appropriate, but proposes methodological refinements to improve the assessment of market access, clarifies how serious short-term vulnerabilities are assessed, and proposes a modest extension of the transition period before graduation decisions become effective.