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Mr. Malcolm D. Knight


Since 1991, the 15 countries under review - have to varying degrees, been pursuing reforms whose broad objectives have been to achieve market-based determination of interest rates and exchange rates, manage banking system liquidity through market operations with indirect instruments, and provide the institutional underpinnings for the design and implementation of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform programs supported by the IMF. This study reviews the experience under these programs and the economic developments in the countries that undertook them.

International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Ukraine during 1991–95. In October 1994, Ukraine finally embarked upon a comprehensive program of economic reform and stabilization. Although the efforts made in late 1994 were far reaching, the short-term results were not encouraging: inflation remained stubbornly high, the exchange rate weak, activity declined, and the rate of accumulation of external arrears dangerously rapid. By the first half of 1995, the performance .of the economy was more encouraging. Inflation slowed to monthly rates of about 5 percent. Exports to western markets also expanded strongly.
International Monetary Fund
This Background Paper and Statistical Appendix for Turkmenistan examines the developments since November 1993, when the manat was introduced as the national currency. Developments in the real sector and systemic reforms are discussed. Fiscal policies, monetary and credit policies, external developments, and the exchange and trade system are described. The paper highlights that over the medium term, the path toward sustainable growth clearly includes the development of alternative routes for the shipment of gas outside the territory of the Former Soviet Union.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–97. To address the growing economic difficulties, the government announced an economic reform package for 1996, which aimed at achieving a recovery in output, sharply lowering inflation, maintaining a strong reserve position, and promoting private sector development. The reform package had mixed success. Monetary and credit policy was generally restrained until late 1996, contributing to a moderation in inflation. However, economy-wide public sector wages were doubled in October, against a background of continued payment difficulties in the gas sector and a decline in GDP.
International Monetary Fund
This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–98. Turkmenistan reduced gas exports and suffered a decline in real GDP of close to 40 percent during 1993–95. At the same time, it stepped up foreign borrowing and constrained imports by limiting access to foreign exchange to sustain gross international reserves at the equivalent of 6–9 months of imports. The distortions associated with the perpetuation of central controls, coupled with an accommodating monetary policy, led to financial instability, raising annual average inflation rates to close to 1,500 percent during 1993–95.