For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.
This Selected Issues paper reviews Canada’s business tax system, looking at the incentive effects of the country’s business tax regime and their implications for output and employment. It presents estimates of marginal effective tax rates on corporate-source income in Canada and comparator countries across sectors, asset classes, means of finance, and asset ownership. The paper also examines labor markets in Canada. It notes that unemployment rates in Canada have risen across all demographic groups, industries, and regions, although young and less-educated workers and workers in agriculture and primary industries have been most severely affected.
The export performance of the French economy relative to its own past and relative to a major trading partner, Germany, has deteriorated. The risk analysis indicates that French firms have seen a significant improvement in the corporate health, and seem resilient to the recent financial shock despite differences across firms. Several issues in the context of common EU tax policy formation, including carbon pricing, control problems associated with the zero-rating of intra-EU supplies, and possible movement toward a common corporate tax base need to be addressed.
This note estimates potential output for France during 1980–2010, using three distinct approaches, and discusses long-term growth prospects. The focus on capital taxation highlights the need for a broader reform of the French tax system to address the features that hamper job growth, investment, and productivity growth. This paper analyzes the impact of Basel III capital requirements on French banks and the French economy, and proposes policy recommendations. French banks should be able to meet the new requirements through earnings retention.
Although fiscal consolidation has short-term costs, the potential long-term benefits are considerable. Although adjustment is important for securing fiscal sustainability, reforms that raise potential growth could also support consolidation. Simulations show that the external environment also matters, but domestic policies should be the priority to raise medium-term growth. In Japan, public policies can help create an environment for more effective capital formation. For Japan, reforms to stimulate private consumption hold significant promise for boosting growth, and this could be achieved by boosting household disposable income.
Overall competitiveness of the Dutch economy seems adequate, but domestically produced exports have lost market share recently. Over the past three decades, globalization has greatly influenced economies as countries have become more integrated. Empirical studies on business cycles synchronization and transmission of shocks among countries have provided conflicting results. In its descriptive part, this study concludes that Dutch export competitiveness is not a problem so far. This also finds that the Netherlands is relatively more exposed to supply-driven shocks while Germany is more exposed to demand-driven shocks.