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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

20. Much of resource revenue management hinges on the relationships between the government, national resource companies (NRCs), and international companies. These relationships must be clearly defined for all stages of resource development. Extractive industries can affect the economy or environment at any stage from exploration through to abandonment. Exploration is usually the highest-risk element of any extractive industry project, though there is a difference in this respect between mining and petroleum,22 and substantial expenditure is generally required before a discovery is confirmed. Any government policies intended to encourage investment by international companies or using NRCs at various stages of development should be clear. In the petroleum industry, particular emphasis needs to be placed on clarifying the role of the national oil companies (NOCs). These still produce much of the world’s oil and often play a strong policy role relative to the rest of government. This chapter of the Guide examines the legal framework governing these relationships, the special nature of the fiscal regime for resource companies, the broad role of NRCs, including their noncommercial activities, and the clarity of revenue sharing arrangements with lower levels of government.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

120. The need for effective mechanisms to provide assurances of integrity is especially important in the case of resource revenue flows. The magnitude of these transactions and their technical complexity provide a high exposure to risks of malpractice. In developing countries, this situation is often combined with a lack of technical capacity and political failure to address risks adequately. The inherent risks107 associated with resource sectors require that governments place special emphasis on data quality, internal controls, and independent external audit. This chapter of the Guide examines some key requirements for establishing good practice in this area of the Code. The role of the EITI validation process is highlighted again in this context.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1.1 The government sector should be distinguished from the rest of the public sector and from the rest of the economy, and policy and management roles within the public sector should be clear and publicly disclosed.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

72. Similar principles of transparency to those recommended for other parts of the government budget should apply to the processes for planning, allocating, spending, and reporting resource revenues. The special features of resource revenue, however, require that governments give particular emphasis to policy clarity with regard to explicit treatment of risks arising from the resource base, transparency of accounting, and control of receipts and spending. In particular, the government should clearly explain to the public its policies toward smoothing the impact of volatile revenue flows and ensuring long-term fiscal sustainability. If savings or stabilization funds have been established, they should be fully integrated into the overall fiscal policy framework. All resource-related asset holdings should be fully disclosed and asset management policies open. This section covers these and other good transparency practices that will lead toward an effective application of fiscal policy in resource-rich countries.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The Guide on Resource Revenue Transparency applies the principles of the revised IMF Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency (‘the Code’) to the unique set of transparency problems faced by countries that derive a significant share of their revenues from natural resources and need to address complex and volatile transaction flows. The Guide identifies and explains generally recognized good or best practices for transparency of resource revenue management. It supplements the IMF Manual on Fiscal Transparency. The Guide has been revised to reflect the new Code and to provide more recent examples of good practice by individual countries. It is designed to give a framework for assessing resource-specific issues within broader fiscal transparency assessments (including so-called ‘fiscal ROSCs’). The Guide has been used by the governments and legislatures of resource-rich countries, civil societies, providers of technical support, and interested academics and observers.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

For countries with an asterisk (*), a fiscal Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) has been published by the IMF.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

La Guía sobre la transparencia del ingreso proveniente de los recursos naturales aplica los principios de la edición revisada del Código del FMI de buenas prácticas de transparencia fiscal ("el Código") al conjunto singular de problemas de transparencia que se les plantean a los países que obtienen una proporción considerable de sus ingresos públicos de los recursos naturales y que deben hacer frente a flujos de transacciones complejos y volátiles. En la Guía se identifican y explican buenas prácticas, o prácticas óptimas, de aceptación general en materia de transparencia en la gestión de los ingresos derivados de los recursos naturales. Esta Guía complementa el Manual de transparencia fiscal del FMI. La Guía se ha revisado para adaptarla al nuevo Código y proporciona ejemplos más recientes de buenas prácticas seguidas por países específicos. Se ha diseñado con el propósito de ofrecer un marco para evaluar cuestiones específicas relacionadas con los recursos naturales en el contexto de las evaluaciones generales de la transparencia fiscal (incluidos los "módulos fiscales" de los informes sobre la observancia de códigos y normas). La Guía es utilizada por autoridades del poder ejecutivo y legislativo de países ricos en recursos naturales, organizaciones de la sociedad civil, entidades que proporcionan respaldo técnico, profesionales del ámbito académico y otros observadores interesados.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This series contains practical "how-to" information for economists and includes topics such as tax policy, balance of payments statistics, external debt statistics, foreign exchange reserve management, and financial sector assessment.