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  • Notes and Manuals x
  • Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data; Data Access x
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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

La labor que dedica el FMI a las normas sobre divulgación de datos abarca dos niveles: el Sistema General de Divulgación de Datos (SGDD), que se aplica a todos los países miembros del FMI, y las Normas Especiales para la Divulgación de Datos (NEDD), para los países que tienen o buscan acceso a los mercados internacionales de capital. El marco del SGDD ofrece a los gobiernos una guía sobre el desarrollo general de los datos macroeconómicos, financieros y sociodemográficos fundamentales para el análisis y la formulación de políticas en un contexto que, cada vez más, requiere datos estadísticos relevantes, exhaustivos y exactos. Esta Guía explica la naturaleza, objetivos y funcionamiento del SGDD; qué tipos de datos comprende y cómo participan los países. Brinda a las autoridades estadísticas nacionales una herramienta de gestión y un marco para promover una metodología estadística sólida, la compilación de datos con criterios profesionales y la divulgación de datos. Esta Guía reemplaza a la versión actualizada en marzo de 2002 e incorpora los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, de las Naciones Unidas, como elementos específicos del componente sociodemográfico del SGDD, desarrollado en colaboración con el Banco Mundial.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Les travaux du FMI sur les normes de diffusion des données se font à deux niveaux : le système général de diffusion des données (SGDD), pour tous les pays membres, et la norme spéciale de diffusion des données (NSDD), pour les pays membres qui ont accès, ou cherchent à avoir accès, aux marchés de capitaux internationaux. Le SGDD fournit aux pays des recommandations sur l'établissement des données macroéconomiques, financières et sociodémographiques qui sont essentielles pour l'élaboration de la politique économique et l'analyse dans un environnement où des statistiques pertinentes, détaillées et exactes sont de plus en plus nécessaires. Ce guide explique la nature, les objectifs et le fonctionnement du SGDD, les dimensions des données et les modalités de participation. Il offre aux offices nationaux de statistiques un outil de gestion et une structure qui favorisent la mise en place d'une solide méthodologie statistique, un établissement professionnel des données et la diffusion des données. Le guide remplace la version mise à jour en mars 2002 et intègre les objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD), adoptés dans le cadre des Nations unies, comme éléments spécifiques du volet sociodémographique du SGDD, qui a été élaboré en collaboration avec la Banque mondiale.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

1.1 A price index is a measure of the proportionate, or percentage, changes in a set of prices over time. A consumer price index (CPI) measures changes in the prices of goods and services that households consume. Such changes affect the real purchasing power of consumers’ incomes and their welfare. As the prices of different goods and services do not all change at the same rate, a price index can only reflect their average movement. A price index is typically assigned a value of unity, or 100, in some reference period and the values of the index for other periods of time are intended to indicate the average proportionate, or percentage, change in prices from this price reference period. Price indices can also be used to measure differences in price levels between different cities, regions or countries at the same point in time.

International Monetary Fund. Statistics Dept.

Abstract

1.1 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) introduced the Data Standards Initiatives following the 1994–95 international financial crises for the purpose of promoting the transparency of economic and financial data. The Data Standards Initiatives consist of three tiers:

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

10.1 This chapter focuses on a number of expenditure areas that pose particular problems for price index compilers, both in terms of identifying an agreed conceptual approach and also overcoming practical measurement difficulties. Six areas have been selected for discussion, mainly from the service sector. They are:

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

11.1 This chapter discusses the general types of potential error to which all price indices are subject. The literature on consumer price indices (CPIs) discusses these errors from two perspectives, and this chapter presents the two perspectives in turn. First, the chapter describes the sources of sampling and non-sampling error that arise in estimating a population CPI from a sample of observed prices. Second, the chapter reviews the arguments made in numerous recent studies that attribute bias to CPIs as a result of insufficiently accurate treatment of quality change, consumer substitution and other factors. It should be emphasized that many of the underlying issues discussed here are dealt with in much greater detail elsewhere in the manual.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

12.1 Consumer price indices (CPI) are one of the most important and widely used of macroeconomic indicators. As well as informing economic policy, they are used for indexation of welfare benefits, pensions, gilts and securities, and also for escalation clauses in private contracts. Accuracy and reliability are paramount for a statistic as important as a CPI.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

13.1 The consumer price index (CPI) is one of the most important statistical series. Where statistics are categorized according to their potential impact, the CPI and its variants are always in the first rank. It follows therefore that it must be published, and otherwise disseminated, according to the policies, codes of practice and standards set for such data.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

14.1 This chapter focuses on the value aggregates for goods and services that relate the major price indices, including the consumer price index (CPI), to one another. The chapter provides a deeper context for the domain of the CPI covered in Chapter 3 and the index weights dealt with in Chapter 4. It also deepens the context for defining the sample unit and the set of products, discussed in Chapter 5.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

The answer to the question what is the Mean of a given set of magnitudes cannot in general be found, unless there is given also the object for the sake of which a mean value is required. There are as many kinds of average as there are purposes; and we may almost say in the matter of prices as many purposes as writers. Hence much vain controversy between persons who are literally at cross purposes. (Edgeworth (1888, p. 347)).