This chapter was prepared by Kamil Dybczak, Carlos Mulas Granados, and Ezgi Ozturk with inputs from Vizhdan Boranova, Karim Foda, Keiko Honjo, Raju Huidrom, Nemanja Jovanovic and Svitlana Maslova, under the supervision of Jörg Decressin and the guidance of Gabriel Di Bella. Jaewoo Lee and Petia Topalova provided useful advice and comments. Nomelie Veluz provided administrative support. This chapter reflects data and developments as of September 28, 2020.
Bertrand Gruss (co-lead), Carlos Mulas-Granados, Manasa Pat-nam (co-lead), and Sebastian Weber prepared this chapter under the supervision of Enrica Detragiache and the guidance of Jeffrey Franks. Zan Jin provided excellent research support.
Christian Ebeke (co-lead), Nemanja Jovanovic, Svitlana Maslova, Francisco Parodi, Laura Valderrama (co-lead), Svetlana Vtyurina, and Jing Zhou prepared this chapter under the supervision of Mahmood Pradhan and the guidance of Laura Papi and Petia Topalova. Jörg Decressin provided useful advice and comments. Jankeesh Sandhu provided outstanding research assistance, and Nomelie Veluz was expertly in charge of administrative support.
Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Robert Gillingham, Marijn Verhoeven, and Mr. Erwin H Tiongson
A recent review of data on government spending on education and health care reveals that such spending has continued to grow in countries with IMF-supported programs (see IMF Survey, March 8, 1999, page 79; February 23, 1998, page 52; and July 21, 1997, page 217). Indicators of education attainment and health status have also continued to improve. But underlying the increase in average spending are significant differences among countries and an uneven distribution of the benefits. The review, which covers 66 countries with IMF-supported programs during 1985-98, is part of an ongoing effort by the IMF to compile and analyze data on government spending in the education and health care sectors.
This paper reviews the progress report on implementation of the National Strategy for Socio-Economic Development (NSSED) during 2004 in Albania. The NSSED established a multiyear plan to combat poverty and strengthen governance. The main implication of the Integrated Planning System for the NSSED is that it will evolve into a comprehensive strategic planning framework. Its focus will accordingly shift toward medium to long-term planning, ensuring that a coherent, costed, mutually consistent sector and cross-cutting strategies are developed that serve as the policy basis for the annual Medium-Term Budget Program process.
This Progress Report reviews implementation of Albania’s National Strategy for Socio-Economic Development (NSSED) during 2003. The report is primarily orientated toward the vitalization and harmonization of mid-term and long-term development objectives; the principle of further prioritization of public measures; the real costing of priority public measures; and the extension of Albanian ownership of NSSED. The report also offers an improved mid-term vision and serves as a starting point for a long-term visionary process based on credible and realistic analyses.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused dramatic loss of human life and major damage to the European economy, but thanks to an exceptionally strong policy response, potentially devastating outcomes have been avoided.
Macedonia's macroeconomic stabilization program continues to rest on the basis of fiscal and monetary policies, and has restored the fiscal balance to a sustainable level after two years of high deficits. Further structural measures are important to address impediments to growth and to reduce unemployment. Reforms are necessary to strengthen the investment climate by creating a predictable business environment, implementing judicial reforms, and addressing governance problems. The financial system stability assessment acknowledged the authorities' efforts to improve the soundness of the banking system and to address remaining vulnerabilities.