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Mr. Fabio Scacciavillani
This paper is an empirical study of the links between monetary variables and inflation based on Cagan’s equation and its rational expectations solution, when the forcing variable is a fractionally integrated process. As demonstrated by Hamilton and Whiteman, the existence of bubbles and other extraneous influences can be detected only by verifying the difference in the order of integration between the monetary base and the price level series. This paper shows that a fractionally differenced model overcomes Evans’ critique of this test and that chronic inflation is essentially a monetary phenomenon caused by fiscal imbalance.
Mr. Hans P Lankes and Miss Katerina Alexandraki
Preference erosion has become an obstacle to multilateral trade liberalization, as beneficiaries of trade preferences have an incentive to resist reductions in mostfavored- nation (MFN) tariffs. This study identifies middle-income developing countries that are vulnerable to export revenue loss from preference erosion. It concludes that the problem is heavily concentrated in a sub-set of preference beneficiaries-primarily small island economies dependent on sugar, banana, and-to a lesser extent-textile exports. Accordingly, measures to help mitigate the impact of preference erosion can be closely targeted at the countries at risk.