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Mr. Anthony R. Boote

The capital needs that will enable Eastern Europe to catch up to EC standards of living are assessed within the framework of a constant elasticity of substitution production function. This function, parameterized on the EC, is assumed to apply, with certain inefficiency factors, to Eastern Europe in 1992. Quantitative results, given the heroic assumptions required, are bounded by large ranges. The approach provides a framework for assessing the factors that will determine future capital needs in Eastern Europe and underscores the crucial role of efficiency gains in this process.

Richard Podpiera and Tomás Dvorák
The announcement of the European Union enlargement coincided with a dramatic rise in stock prices in accession countries. This paper investigates the hypothesis that the rise in stock prices was a result of the repricing of systematic risk due to the integration of accession countries into the world market. We found that firm-level stock price changes are positively related to the difference between a firm's local and world market betas. This result is robust to controlling for changes in expected earnings, country effects, and other controls, although the magnitude of the effect is not very large. The differences between local and world betas explain nearly 22 percent of the stock price increase.
Mr. Eduardo Borensztein
This paper discusses several proposals for a wholesale privatization of public enterprises in Eastern Europe. These proposals include the distribution of ”vouchers” to private citizens as well as the use of mutual funds, privatization companies and other forms of financial intermediaries. The paper analyzes the implications for economic efficiency of the different forms of ownership and control that would emerge from the proposals as well as their main macroeconomic consequences.
Mr. Anthony R. Boote
The paper aims at assessing the capital needs of Eastern Europe in catching up to EC standards of living using the framework of a CES (constant elasticity of substitution) production function model. This function, parameterized on the EC, is assumed to apply with certain inefficiency factors in Eastern Europe in 1992. Quantitative results, given the heroic set of assumptions required, are bounded by large ranges. The approach provides a framework for assessing the factors which will determine the future capital needs in Eastern Europe and underscores the crucial role of efficiency gains in this process.
Mr. Michael G. Spencer and Mr. H. J. Blommestein
Financial institutions intermediate between savers and investors and contribute to corporate governance. Equity and bond markets in the former centrally planned economies are not yet in a position adequately to provide these services. It is not yet clear that investment funds will provide the necessary financing and corporate management. Therefore the first priority for financial sector reforms must be to establish a healthy commercial banking sector. Banks are the most promising source of financing, provide payment services which are crucial to both the real and financial sectors and, by monitoring the use of loaned funds, will be the primary source of corporate governance during the transformation to a market economy.
Richard Varghese and Yuanyan Sophia Zhang
ECB President Draghi’s Jackson Hole speech in August 2014 arguably marked a new phase of unconventional monetary policies (UMPs) in the euro area. This paper examines the market impact and tranmission channels of this new wave of UMPs using a modified event study framework. They are found to have a more prominent impact on inflation expectations and exchange rates compared to the earlier UMP announcements. The impact on bank equity, however, is less significant in part due to narrowing profit margin in a low interest rate environment; and the marginal effect on sovereign spread compression has diminished. By extracting components of monetary policy shocks from the yield curve, we find that the traditional signaling channel of the monetary policy transmission continued to play an important role, but the portfolio rebalancing channel became more important in the new phase. Spillovers to non-euro area EU countries (the Czech Republic, Denmark, Poland, and Sweden) are transmitted mainly through the portfolio rebalancing channel, largely affecting sovereign yields and exchange rates.
EDUARDO BORENSZTEIN and MANMOHAN S. KUMAR

Several proposals for a wholesale privatization of public enterprises in Eastern Europe are discussed. These proposals include the distribution of “vouchers” to private citizens, as well as the use of mutual funds, privatization companies, and other forms of financial intermediaries. The paper analyzes the implications for economic efficiency of the different forms of ownership and control that would emerge from the proposals, as well as their main macroeconomic consequences.

International Monetary Fund

Although the economic growth of Romania has resumed, it has boosted downside risks. However, the country has continued its strong performance under the new program in strengthening macroeconomic policies, accelerating structural reforms, and consolidating economic development. In conclusion, the authorities concur that the current precautionary Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) will provide additional security against unforeseen shocks, thereby setting the stage for strong and sustainable economic development while maintaining external and internal stability and thereby achieving the fiscal goals for 2012.