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Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

The proliferation of violent conflicts over the past two decades has taken a heavy toll on life and property. The effects of conflict have often spilled across national boundaries through the disruption of economic activity or the influx of refugees, to cite just two examples. Furthermore, countries in conflict have a high tendency to relapse into subsequent conflicts (Bigombe, Collier, and Sambanis, 2000). As such, the legacy of conflict—and its adverse effects on socioeconomic development—have been difficult for many countries to escape.

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

The International Monetary Fund has provided a considerable amount of technical assistance to post-conflict countries in recent years. Postconflict assistance as a proportion of total technical assistance provided by the IMF Fiscal Affairs Department increased from about 15 percent in 1995 to about 23 percent in 2004 (Table 2.1). A total of 27 postconflict countries and territories have received IMF assistance through its Fiscal Affairs Department.1

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

The challenges facing postconflict countries can be gauged by the economic conditions confronting them in the aftermath of a conflict.1 Figures 3.1 to 3.6 present information, to the extent that data are available, on macroeconomic and fiscal conditions in 14 countries and territories with conflict episodes from 1990–2003: the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Croatia, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Tajikistan, and the Republic of Yemen.2

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

The preferred strategy for rebuilding fiscal institutions in the wake of conflict involves three basic steps: (i) creating a proper legal and regulatory framework for fiscal policy; (ii) establishing a central fiscal authority and a mechanism for coordinating foreign assistance; and (iii) implementing priority changes in revenue and expenditure policies, along with simple arrangements in revenue administration and public expenditure management that effectively leverage scarce human resources.

International Monetary Fund
The information provided in this paper supplements the information presented in the main Board paper. The main paper discusses experiences in reestablishing fiscal management in post-conflict countries. On the basis of the Fiscal Affairs Department technical assistance recommendations to these countries, that paper identifies key priorities for rebuilding fiscal institutions in a post-conflict setting. This background paper provides more detailed information for the six selected countries—Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Lebanon, Mozambique, and Timor-Leste.
Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

This paper discusses experiences in reestablishing fiscal management in postconflict countries. Building fiscal institutions in postconflict countries essentially entails a three-step process: (1) creating a legal or regulatory framework for fiscal management; (2) establishing or strengthening fiscal authority; and (3) designing appropriate revenue and expenditure policies while simultaneously strengthening revenue administration and public expenditure management. Based on experiences in 14 postconflict countries, the paper reviews the challenges in rebuilding fiscal institutions in these countries, and identifies key priorities in the fiscal area following the cessation of hostilities.

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

This chapter presents case studies on six countries where the International Monetary Fund, through its Fiscal Affairs Department, has provided technical assistance in postconflict situations: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lebanon, Mozambique, and Timor-Leste. Whereas the previous chapter identified priorities for rebuilding fiscal institutions in a postconflict setting drawing on experiences in a number of countries, this chapter will provide more detailed information regarding the six selected countries. Each case study describes the postconflict environment and context in which the technical assistance was provided, as well as the overall strategy for rebuilding fiscal institutions. The studies examine the successes and failures in implementing technical assistance recommendations for revenue policy and administration and public expenditure management. For Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the studies also examine the issue of fiscal federalism.1 As mentioned in the previous chapter, recommendations can vary across countries depending on country-specific circumstances.

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

A number of lessons can be drawn from the International Monetary Fund’s involvement with rebuilding fiscal institutions in postconflict situations. While these lessons are highlighted by the postconflict case studies presented in the previous chapter, many of them also apply to any country or territory where the capacity to implement macroeconomic policies is impaired due to weak institutions (Box 6.1).

Ms. Rina Bhattacharya, Mr. Benedict J. Clements, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Shamsuddin Tareq, Mr. Alex Segura-Ubiergo, and Mr. Todd D. Mattina

Abstract

Building fiscal institutions in postconflict countries essentially entails a three-step process: (i) creating a legal and regulatory framework for fiscal management; (ii) establishing or strengthening the fiscal authority; and (iii) designing appropriate revenue and expenditure policies while simultaneously strengthening revenue administration and public expenditure management. The sequencing involved in implementing these steps varies across countries, depending on country-specific circumstances. The ultimate aim, however, is always the same—to make fiscal policy and fiscal management effective and transparent.