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International Monetary Fund

This technical note presents a comparative analysis of the Danish Mortgage Market. It discusses the particularities of the regulatory framework of the Danish mortgage system. The note compares and contrasts mortgage financing in Denmark and in other European countries, looking both at the product side and at the funding side. Recent European regulatory evolutions, which could have potentially far-reaching consequences for the Danish mortgage system, are elaborated. The note also highlights the challenges faced by the Danish mortgage system.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

The functioning of money markets, FX swaps markets and in particular covered bond markets are crucial for the Danish financial system. Liquidity conditions in the Danish financial sector are affected by central bank operations and the lending and funding activities of financial institutions. Nearly 100 percent of the mortgage funding is obtained from market sources, using mainly domestically issued covered bonds. Correspondingly, money markets and foreign exchange (FX) swap markets are crucial to the credit intermediation process and a dislocation in these markets—the inability of financial institutions to roll over or obtain new funding or hedging positions—may have significant consequences for financial stability. Against this background, this note analyzes core funding markets for Danish banks and assesses Danmarks Nationalbank’s (DN’s) capacity to manage systemic liquidity conditions in normal times and in times of stress.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Denmark’s public expenditure as a share of GDP is the highest in the OECD. The main difference between Denmark and the median OECD country is the larger amount of social protection expenditure. The public health expenditure of Denmark is the second highest in the OECD. Following years of strong public capital accumulation in facilities as well as in training, education, and research, Denmark’s expenditure on public investment is now low. The composition of Denmark’s expenditures is broadly in line with the high expenditure countries.

International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

This technical note analyzes systemic issues in mortgage loans and covered bond finance in Denmark. Mortgage lending has seen significant product innovation in recent years. Loans with adjustable interest rates and/or interest-only periods, which have been introduced since the late 1990s, had grown to 75 percent and 53 percent, respectively, of total outstanding mortgage loans at the end of 2013. The major changes in the characteristics of the underlying mortgage loans have naturally been reflected in an important evolution of the covered bond market. Traditionally, covered bonds were callable annuities with maturities closely matching those of the underlying fixed rate loans. In contrast, adjustable and variable interest rate loans are financed by bonds with short maturities.

International Monetary Fund
In this study, economic developments and policies used for the recovery of financial stability of Sweden against global recession are discussed. The low inflation is reached by increasing Riksbank policy rate. The role of fiscal policy council is explained. The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) recommendations are endorsed on financial institutions. These include merging the stability and deposit insurance funds, establishing a special bank resolution regime, and increasing further the Financial Supervisory Agency’s capacity. Also, the Basel III capital regulations are supported by the authorities.
International Monetary Fund
This technical note presents a comparative analysis of the Danish Mortgage Market. It discusses the particularities of the regulatory framework of the Danish mortgage system. The note compares and contrasts mortgage financing in Denmark and in other European countries, looking both at the product side and at the funding side. Recent European regulatory evolutions, which could have potentially far-reaching consequences for the Danish mortgage system, are elaborated. The note also highlights the challenges faced by the Danish mortgage system.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The functioning of money markets, FX swaps markets and in particular covered bond markets are crucial for the Danish financial system. Liquidity conditions in the Danish financial sector are affected by central bank operations and the lending and funding activities of financial institutions. Nearly 100 percent of the mortgage funding is obtained from market sources, using mainly domestically issued covered bonds. Correspondingly, money markets and foreign exchange (FX) swap markets are crucial to the credit intermediation process and a dislocation in these markets—the inability of financial institutions to roll over or obtain new funding or hedging positions—may have significant consequences for financial stability. Against this background, this note analyzes core funding markets for Danish banks and assesses Danmarks Nationalbank’s (DN’s) capacity to manage systemic liquidity conditions in normal times and in times of stress.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
The Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) work was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. This report, however, includes stability analysis and stress tests under updated illustrative scenarios to quantify the possible implications of the COVID-19 shock on bank solvency. An unusually high degree of caution must be exercised in interpreting the stress tests results and their implications or validity at the current juncture, due to heightened uncertainty around post COVID central projections and downside risks. Financial vulnerabilities were elevated on the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic. Key financial vulnerabilities included high household leverage amid high real estate valuations following a long period of loose financial conditions. There were also signs of risk taking in some sectors, such as commercial real estate (CRE), and in addition, there were downside risks to bank profitability amid the low-interest-rate environment.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Much of the work of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the FSAP’s focus on medium-term challenges and vulnerabilities, however, many of its findings and recommendations for strengthening policy and institutional frameworks remain pertinent. This report reflects key developments and policy changes since the FSAP mission work was completed, and includes illustrative scenarios to quantify the possible implications of the COVID-19 shock on the solvency of systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs). Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Danish authorities had taken important steps to improve financial system resilience. The authorities had actively used macroprudential tools to bolster the robustness of the financial system. The supervision of the banking and insurance sectors had improved. Likewise, recent legislation has strengthened anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) supervision. Major reforms such as a new bank resolution framework had also considerably improved Denmark’s financial safety net and crisis management frameworks.
International Monetary Fund
This technical note discusses the structure of the Danish capital market and related issues. The focus is on the organization and functioning of domestic securities markets. The note provides a regional perspective on these markets. It reviews the prudential framework for capital markets, and analyzes the progressive integration and collaboration among the Scandinavian stock exchanges. The note also discusses liquidity in Danish capital markets, as well as analyzes the rapid growth of Danish investment funds.