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van Til, Almekinders,, Kawakami,, Matovu,, and Yuguda

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes economic developments in Botswana during the 1990s. The paper analyzes the growth process during 1982/83–1996/97 by assessing the contribution of capital, labor, and technological progress, both at the macroeconomic and sectoral levels. The paper examines the diversification initiatives undertaken by Botswana and the extent to which diversification and employment creation have been achieved. It provides the background to the unemployment problem, and summarizes Botswana’s policy initiatives to diversify and create sustainable employment.

Mr. Tetsuya Konuki and Mr. Mauricio Villafuerte
Excessively procyclical fiscal policy can be harmful. This paper investigates to what extent the fiscal policies of sub-Saharan African countries were procyclical in recent years and the reasons for the degree of fiscal procyclicality among these countries. It finds that a tendency for procyclical fiscal policy was particularly pronounced among oil exporters and after the global financial crisis. It also finds a statistically significant causal link running from deeper financial markets and higher reserves coverage to lower fiscal policy procyclicality. Fiscal rules supported by strong political commitment and institutions seem to be key to facilitating progress for deeper financial markets and stronger reserves coverage.
M. Ayhan Kose and Eswar S. Prasad

For the latest thinking about the international financial system, monetary policy, economic development, poverty reduction, and other critical issues, subscribe to Finance & Development (F&D). This lively quarterly magazine brings you in-depth analyses of these and other subjects by the IMF’s own staff as well as by prominent international experts. Articles are written for lay readers who want to enrich their understanding of the workings of the global economy and the policies and activities of the IMF.