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International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

In a news brief issued on June 15, IMF Managing Director Michel Camdessus announced that an IMF Executive Board meeting had been set for early July to consider Mexico’s request for a Stand-By credit from the IMF equivalent to SDR 3.1 billion (about $4.1 billion). “The credit would be in support of the government’s strong economic program for 1999–2000,” Camdessus said, “and would help ensure the maintenance of a strong policy framework during the transition to the next administration, and thereby support market confidence during this period.

International Monetary Fund

This note provides operational guidance and background information on the use of Fund resources for budgetary financing.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

This staff report on the Republic of Yemen’s 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic development and policies. The macroeconomic situation stabilized in 2012, but the recovery remains fragile. After contracting by more than 12 percent in 2011, real GDP is estimated to have grown by 2.4 percent in 2012, reflecting an easing of supply bottlenecks, and utilization of part of idle capacity. On the other hand, oil production declined further, due to continued sabotage of the pipelines. Average inflation declined to 9.9 percent from 19.5 percent in 2011, reflecting the appreciation of the rial to its pre-crisis level, the moderation of international food prices, and the easing of supply shortages.

International Monetary Fund

Yemen is confronted with a range of difficult economic challenges. The reduction in oil revenues in the past year has affected the Yemeni economy through a set of direct and indirect channels. The loss of oil revenue contributed to a record fiscal deficit of about 10 percent of GDP in 2009, financed in large part by the central bank. The balance of payments was also put under considerable strain. The identified measures are home-grown and designed to have a long-lasting impact on the structure of the budget.

International Monetary Fund

This 2004 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in Yemen slowed in 2004 owing to a sharp contraction in the oil sector. Oil production declined by 5.9 percent, reflecting diminishing recovery from aging large oil fields as well as the absence of significant new discoveries. Some progress has been made in structural reforms. The revised General Sales Tax law submitted to parliament in late 2004 included several improvements designed to protect the integrity and simplicity of this tax.

International Monetary Fund

This 2007 Article IV Consultation highlights that despite recent progress in poverty reduction, Yemen remains far from achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Oil production has been declining since 2000, and in the absence of major discoveries, proven oil reserves could be depleted in some 10 years' time. Economic performance in 2006 was generally favorable, but was accompanied by an increase in inflation. Overall real GDP growth reached 4 percent in 2006, with a 6 percent non-oil growth offsetting an 8 percent decline in oil production.

International Monetary Fund

Recent economic performance in Yemen has been mixed. A sharp decline in oil production, coupled with inflexible government expenditure and only marginal improvement in the tax-to-GDP ratio led to an overall fiscal deficit of 5.8 percent in 2007. Executive Directors have noted that Yemen’s non-oil GDP growth has been solid in recent years, and progress has been made on a number of structural reforms. Directors have welcomed the authorities’ commitment to reduce expenditure in the event that oil prices remain below the benchmark price in the 2009 budget.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
A central proposition regarding effects of different mechanisms of fi-nancing public expenditures is that, under specific circumstances, it makes no difference to the level of aggregate demand if the government finances its outlays by debt or taxation. This so-called Ricardian equivalence states that, for a given expenditure path, substitution of debt for taxes does not affect private sector wealth and consumption. This paper provides a model illustrating the implications of Ricardian equivalence, surveys the litera-ture, considers effects of relaxing the basic assumptions, provides a frame-work to study implications of various extensions, and critically reviews recent empirical work on Ricardian equivalence.