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International Monetary Fund

This paper analyzes Bolivia’s growth performance with a focus on the regional and sectoral patterns of growth, and examines the sources of growth. It discusses the evolution of the hydrocarbon sector, its importance in the economy, and reforms. It also analyzes the intergovernmental fiscal relations system and changes to the revenue sharing arrangements, and suggests possible areas for reform. It assesses measures of reserve adequacy in Bolivia and also provides a look at the external debt after the applications of the main debt relief plans in the past 10 years.

International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.

The December 2016 IMF Research Bulletin features highlights from ongoing IMF research and publications.

Ms. Chanpen Puckahtikom and Mr. Eduard H. Brau


In the current environment of payments difficulties, a principal role of the Fund remains the encouragement and support of timely adjustment policies of member countries.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper discusses the 1966 Annual Meetings of the IMF and of the World Bank and its affiliates, the International Development Association (IDA) and the International Finance Corporation. The annual meetings were held in September in Washington. The widespread shortage of capital and rising interest rates were described as posing problems for the Bank’s own borrowings as well as for developing countries. Mr. George D. Woods, the President, stressed the allied problem of the urgent need for a substantial replenishment of the resources available to IDA.
Masahiro Kawai and Domenico Lombardi

Technology is generating a global convergence. A "big bang" of information—and education as well—is improving human lives. And with global interconnectivity growing by leaps and bounds, we are all witness to a rapid spread of information and ideas. But, as we have seen from the prolonged global financial crisis, our interconnectedness carries grave risks as well as benefits. This issue of F&D looks at different aspects of interconnectedness, globally and in Asia. • Brookings VP Kemal Devis presents the three fundamental trends in the global economy affecting the balance between east and west in "World Economy: Convergence, Interdependence, and Divergence." • In "Financial Regionalism," Akihiro Kawai and Domenico Lombardi tell us how regional arrangements are helping global financial stability. • In "Migration Meets Slow Growth," Migration Policy Institute president Demetrios Papademetriou examines how the global movement of workers will change as the economic crisis continues in advanced economies. • "Caught in the Web" explains new ways of looking at financial interconnections in a globalized world. • IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde provides her take on the benefits of integration and the risks of fragmentation in "Straight Talk." Also in this issue, we take a closer look at interconnectedness across Asia as we explore how trade across the region is affected by China's falling trade surplus, how India and China might learn from each others' success, and what Myanmar's reintegration into the global economy means for its people. F&D's People in Economics series profiles Justin Yifu Lin, first developing country World Bank economist, and the Back to Basics series explains the origins and evolution of money.

Hans Peter Lankes

This paper highlights that the current round of trade talks under the auspices of the World Trade Organization aims at better integrating developing countries—especially the small and poor ones—into the global trading system. For that reason, it was named the Doha Development Agenda when it was launched in late 2001. However, more than three years on, little progress has been made. It took a late July 2004 accord outlining “negotiating frameworks” in agriculture and industrial products just to keep the talks afloat.

Andrew K. Rose and Mark M. Spiegel*

One reason why countries service their external debts is the fear that default might lead to shrinkage of international trade. If so, then creditors should systematically lend more to countries with which they share closer trade links. We develop a simple theoretical model to capture this intuition, then test and corroborate this idea. [JELF15, F33]