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International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Les économistes du FMI travaillent en étroite collaboration avec les pays membres sur diverses questions. Leur point de vue unique sur les expériences nationales et leurs bonnes pratiques relatives aux questions macroéconomiques mondiales sont souvent partagés sous la forme de livres sur divers sujets tels que les comparaisons entre pays, le renforcement des capacités, la politique macroéconomique, l’intégration financière et la mondialisation.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

This paper focuses on goal setting for development of the world. The paper highlights that the goals come from the agreements and resolutions of the world conferences organized by the United Nations in the first half of the 1990s. The paper focuses on seven goals that cover poverty, education, gender equality, infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, reproductive health, and environment. Each of the seven goals addresses an aspect of poverty. The paper also emphasizes that these goals should be viewed together because they are mutually reinforcing.

Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, Victor Ginsburgh, Mr. Shlomo Weber, Tim Harford, and Jeff Madrick

'Wising Up to the Costs of Aging' looks at how falling fertility and rising life expectancy have combined to threaten the ability of many countries to provide a decent standard of living for the old without imposing a crushing burden on the young. In our lead article, Ronald Lee and Andrew Mason say that while population aging in rich industrial countries as well as in some middle- and lower-income countries will challenge public and private budgets in many ways, a combination of reduced consumption, postponed retirement, increased asset holdings, and greater investment in human capital should make it possible to meet this challenge without catastrophic consequences. Neil Howe and Richard Jackson publish a fascinating ranking of which countries are best and worst prepared to meet the needs of the growing wave of retirees. We also have articles on a broad range of current topics, including Middle East unemployment, the economic repercussions of the earthquake and devastating tsunami in Japan, and banking in offshore financial centers such as the Cayman Islands. Carmen Reinhart and Jacob Kirkegaard look at how governments are finding ways to manipulate markets to hold down the cost of financing huge public debts, and, in Straight Talk, the IMF's Min Zhu talks about the long-term challenges now facing emerging markets. Prakash Loungani speaks to Nobel Prize winner George Akerlof, and we discuss with three other laureates-Michael Spence, Joseph Stiglitz, and Robert Solow-what the global economic crisis has taught us. Back to Basics explains economic models, and Picture This highlights the great variations in the cost of sending money back home.

MEAD OVER

The AIDS epidemic is straining the limited resources available to many developing country governments. How can governments provide support to those affected by AIDS without neglecting others in need or abandoning important development goals?

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix analyzes Ecuador’s fiscal policy using the concepts of the fiscal stance and fiscal impulse adjusted for movements in the real effective exchange rate. It finds that fiscal policy has been expansionary in 2000 and 2001. The paper shows that the growth of gross fixed investment was relatively strong during the 1970s; thereafter it slowed, particularly in the public sector. The paper also explores the evolution of oil reserves in recent years and the projections for the medium term.

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Goal: Enrol all children in primary school by 2015

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Goal: Implement national strategies for sustainable development by 2005 so as to reverse the loss of environmental resources by 2015

International Monetary Fund

Abstract

Goal: Empower women and eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005

Mrs. Ritha S. Khemani, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Calvin A McDonald, Mr. Louis Dicks-Mireaux, and Marijn Verhoeven

Abstract

The IMF’s mandate is, among other things, “to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income … of all members as primary objectives of economic policy.”3 To this end, the IMF promotes sound macroeconomic policies, growth-enhancing structural reforms, and good social policies–conditions for high-quality growth. The IMF has paid increasing attention to these considerations in its policy advice.

Mrs. Ritha S. Khemani, Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Mr. Calvin A McDonald, Mr. Louis Dicks-Mireaux, and Marijn Verhoeven

Abstract

Sound economic policies favor both growth and the poor. The contribution of macroeconomic and structural reforms to long-run economic growth and poverty reduction is now well established. Research has demonstrated that low fiscal deficits and price stability promote economic growth,6 and economic growth is the most significant single element that contributes to poverty reduction.7 Macroeconomic adjustment generally benefits the poor.8 Dismantling product and factor market rigidities helps reduce poverty by increasing not only the supply of essential goods, but also the poor’s access to them.9 In addition, based on cross-country studies, there is increasing evidence that lower inflation also enhances income equality (Milanovic, 1994; Bulír and Gulde, 1995; Sarel, 1997; Bulír, 1998; and Guitán, 1998).