Gillian Tett, Robert Skidelsky, A Socio-Economic Miscellany, Anand Chandavarkar, and Mr. Jean-Pierre Chauffour
Climate Change: Stimulating a Green Recovery” looks at the global problem of climate change. With the world apparently on an economic recovery path, policymakers are looking at ways to limit the impact of climate change through broad international action. One of the challenges is to balance actions to mitigate climate change with measures to stimulate growth and prosperity. This issue of F&D also examines a variety of issues raised by the crisis—including the future of macroeconomics, explored by William White, former chief economist at the Bank for International Settlements, and the longer-term impact of the crisis on the United States, the world’s largest economy. Our “People in Economics” profile spotlights Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Laureate who “can’t get any respect at home.” We also look at the need for rebalancing growth in Asia, which is leading the world out of recession, and we interview five influential Asians on the region’s fragile rebound. We turn our “Straight Talk” column over to Barbara Stocking of Oxfam, who makes a forceful case for stepping up help to the most vulnerable around the world. “Data Spotlight” looks at trends in inflation, which has fallen into negative territory in some countries during the crisis, and in “Point-Counterpoint,” two experts discuss the pros and cons of remittances—funds repatriated by migrant workers to family and friends back home. “Back to Basics” gives a primer on international trade.
In 2018, China marked the fortieth anniversary of “reform and opening up,” which launched a growth miracle that has put the country on a path—absent major shocks—to becoming the world’s largest economy by 2030. This rapid economic development has been mirrored in the growing size of the financial system, which is now home to the world’s largest banks and the second-largest equity market. The prospects for China’s bond market, already the third largest in the world, are the focus of this book.
The need to develop domestic securities markets has, following the recent international financial crises, increasingly attracted the attention of national and international policymakers.1 This has resulted in the issuance of a number of policy recommendations by various organizations, such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) collaborative Initiative on Development of Domestic Bond Markets. The issue of government debt management is intrinsically linked to government securities market development. Work is currently under way on this issue at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, where guidelines have been developed to guide government actions as an issuer, thereby steering development of the government securities market.2 This handbook on government securities market development seeks to fill an existing gap between specific technical studies about securities market microstructure and publications that offer general policy recommendations about securities market development. The handbook integrates these two perspectives by outlining important issues confronting senior strategic policymakers or those implementing policies to support development of a government securities market.
The design of policies to foster financial system stability and development has become a key area of focus among policy makers globally. This policy focus reflects the growing evidence that financial sector development can spur economic growth whereas financial instability can significantly harm growth and cause major disruptions, as was seen in the financial crises of the 1980s and 1990s (World Bank 2001). This focus also reflects the recognition that close two-way linkages between financial sector soundness and performance, on the one hand, and macroeconomic and real sector developments, on the other hand, need to be considered when designing macroeconomic and financial policies. Moreover, although the development and international integration of financial systems can strengthen access to foreign capital and can promote economic growth, there is a risk of cross-border spillovers of financial system disturbances. Effective surveillance of national financial systems, along with a harmonization and international convergence of key components of financial policies, will help minimize those types of risks and will promote orderly development of the financial system. Thus, financial stability considerations and financial sector development policies are intrinsically interlinked.
Information and governance infrastructure for finance provides the foundation for financial development and effective market discipline, and it helps to reinforce official supervision. It refers (a) to the legal and institutional arrangements and structures that affect the quality, availability, and transparency of information on monetary and financial conditions and policies at various levels and (b) to the incentives and organizational structures to set and implement policies by regulators, the regulated institutions, and their counterparties. The information infrastructure includes (a) the framework for monetary and financial policy transparency (discussed in section 10.1); (b) the accounting and auditing framework that helps to define and validate the information that is disclosed to the public and the regulatory authorities (discussed in section 10.2); and (c) the arrangements to compile, process, and share information on financial conditions and credit exposures of borrowers and other issuers of financial claims (credit-reporting and financial information services, discussed in section 10.3).