For many years the Australian authorities were concerned about the country’s heavy reliance on exports of agricultural and other primary products. But recently the performance of such exports has been very satisfactory and the discovery of new mineral resources and the rise of modern manufacturing industries is changing Australia’s outlook.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
The Two Faces of Financial Globalization looks at the phenomenon of rising cross-border financial flows-credited with boosting growth in developing countries but also blamed for the emerging market crises of the late 1980s and 1990s. The lead article puts together a framework for analyzing studies about the costs and benefits of financial globalization. Other articles look at the worldwide allocation of capital, the role of finance in macroeconomic management, and changes in the investor base. "Picture This" illustrates the growth and direction of capital flows. One guest contributor describes India's capital account liberalization, and another looks at how participants in international finance can cope with a fluid financial landscape. "People in Economics" profiles Guillermo Calvo; "Back to Basics" explains the difference between the purchasing power parity exchange rate and market exchange rates as measures of global economic growth; and "Country Focus" spotlights Australia.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.
This paper highlights that the distribution of income and wealth in developing countries has become a matter of great concern to all those interested in development. The paper highlights that in Latin America, the poorest half of the population receives about the same share of income as the top 1 percent and the lowest 70–75 percent of the population the same share as the top 5 percent. It is clear that the distribution of income and wealth will have substantial implications for the pattern of consumption and production in developing countries.
In recent years, the IMF has released a growing number of reports and other documents covering economic and financial developments and trends in member countries. Each report, prepared by a staff team after discussions with government officials, is published at the option of the member country.
This selected issues paper on Indonesia was prepared by a staff team of the International Monetary Fund as background documentation for the periodic consultation with the member country. It is based on the information available at the time it was completed on August 21, 2012. The views expressed in this document are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the government of Indonesia or the Executive Board of the IMF.
The note provides statistical data on gross domestic product, supply and use of resources, consumer price index, cotton production, cost structure of cotton processing and marketing, government revenue, economic classification of central government expenditure, public investment program, and monetary survey of Chad. The summary accounts of the central bank, balance sheet of commercial banks, balance of payments, foreign trade indices, exchange rates, and other related economic indices of Chad along with indicators of fiscal balance, external balance, and external public debt of CEMAC have been given.
This Selected Issues reviews economic development in Azerbaijan during 1995–99. The Azerbaijan authorities began to implement a far-reaching economic reform program in 1995. As a result, the serious macroeconomic imbalances, which plagued the economy in the early years of the transition, were largely eliminated. Both 1997 and 1998 were characterized by financial stability and strong real growth: average consumer price inflation over this period was close to zero and real GDP growth averaged 8 percent a year.
This paper estimates the effect of copper prices on Chile’s growth at various time horizons.
We find that a price decline is likely to have a durable (although not permanent) effect on
GDP growth: while the impact is the strongest in the first 3 years after the shock, the
transition towards the new lower steady-state GDP level generally takes 5–10 years. From a
production function perspective, the GDP growth slowdown is mainly driven by lower
This Article IV Consultation reports that the main challenge is to maintain macroeconomic stability in substantial demand shock from the construction of two major liquefied natural gas projects. The global downturn had only a mild impact, as growth was supported by still strong terms of trade, a financial sector insulated from global capital markets, and an increase in public expenditure. IMF staff stressed that monetary policy needed to be focused on emerging inflation pressures and act preemptively to avoid high inflation from becoming entrenched in expectations.
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