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International Monetary Fund
This paper describes economic developments in Paraguay during the 1990s. After recording a growth rate of 1.3 percent in 1996, real GDP expanded by 2.6 percent in 1997, or about the same rate as population growth. This reflected mainly a recovery in agricultural output owing to abundant rains. GDP growth suffered a new setback in 1998, with preliminary estimates showing a growth rate of only 0.6 percent, owing mainly to the continued stagnation in the manufacturing sector and a reduction of trade-related activities owing to tighter border controls in Brazil.
International Monetary Fund
The report provides an overview of the recent economic developments in Paraguay. The study analyzes the potential output, growth, prices, wages, and the labor market; and assesses the public finances, social security, and public enterprises. The paper reviews the monetary sector, evaluates the soundness of the banking sector and its developments, the external sector by assessing the balance-of-payments developments and the exchange and trade system. The study also provides a statistical appendix report of the country.
Bertrand Gruss
After skyrocketing over the past decade, commodity prices have remained stable or eased somewhat since mid-2011—and most projections suggest they are not likely to resume the upward trend observed in the last decade. This paper analyzes what this turn in the commodity price cycle may imply for output growth in Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis suggests that growth in the years ahead for the average commodity exporter in the region could be significantly lower than during the commodity boom, even if commodity prices were to remain stable at their current still-high levels. Slower-than-expected growth in China represents a key downside risk. The results caution against trying to offset the current economic slowdown with demand-side stimulus and underscore the need for ambitious structural reforms to secure strong growth over the medium term.
Donald J. Pryor

This paper analyzes the impact of economic development on the environment. The paper highlights that the environmental impact of the industrial process includes everything from the effects of withdrawing the inputs for industry from nature, through the effects of transforming the inputs into salable products, the effects of using the products, and the effects of disposing of what remains after the product no longer has an economic use. The heart of the problem is that almost none of these impacts of industrial processes can readily be costed.