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Olivier Basdevant, Mr. Andrew W Jonelis, Miss Borislava Mircheva, and Mr. Slavi T Slavov
Anecdotal evidence suggests that the economies of South Africa and its neighbors (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe) are tightly integrated with each other. There are important institutional linkages. Across the region there are also large flows of goods and capital, significant financial sector interconnections, as well as sizeable labor movements and associated remittance flows. These interconnections suggest that South Africa’s GDP growth rate should affect positively its neighbors’, a point we illustrate formally with the help of numerical simulations of the IMF’s GIMF model. However, our review and update of the available econometric evidence suggest that there is no strong evidence of real spillovers in the region after 1994, once global shocks are controlled for. More generally, we find no evidence of real spillovers from South Africa to the rest of the continent post-1994. We investigate the possible reasons for this lack of spillovers. Most importantly, the economies of South Africa and the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa might have de-coupled in the mid-1990s. That is when international sanctions on South Africa ended and the country re-integrated with the global economy, while growth in the rest of the continent accelerated due to a combination of domestic and external factors.
International Monetary Fund
The Kingdom of Lesotho’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper reports that consistent implementation of sound macroeconomic policies is critical to the attainment of poverty reduction objectives. At the central level, the authorities established sector working groups to facilitate the formulation of informed policies that respond to the identified priorities. To deal with cross-cutting issues, thematic groups have been established. The private sector, despite weak organizational capacity at the beginning, made a significant contribution to the preparation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy.
International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
This Selected Issues paper examines opportunities and challenges for growth in Haiti. Achieving a sustained increase in living standards in Haiti will require deep-seated reforms across a range of areas. Diversifying the export base is needed to cushion the impact of severe shocks that have reduced per capita income and prevented a sustained increase in the capital stock. Integration into global-value chains would also allow Haiti to take advantage of its proximity to the U.S. market and favorable trade preferences to generate employment, spur the creation of human capital, and allow Haiti to begin climbing the value added chain.
International Monetary Fund
This paper describes the Kingdom of Lesotho’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) 2012/13–2016/17. NSDP recognizes, as a point of departure, the need and urgency for Lesotho to radically transform its economy. To achieve the National Vision goals and to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development, the NSDP strategic goals will be to pursue high, shared, and employment-creating economic growth and develop key infrastructure. The mining investment of more than M 5 billion will lead to increased diamond exports, higher GDP, and faster growth in tax revenues.
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Lesotho’s National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) serves as an implementation strategy for the national vision. It recognizes the significant challenges Lesotho faces in reducing poverty and making growth more broad-based. Overall, it presents a coherent analysis and offers an appropriate path forward to sustained poverty reduction and sustainable economic growth. Executive Directors find that a well-designed implementation and monitoring framework is necessary. Implementation of the NSDP will be a key challenge.
International Monetary Fund
The Kingdom of Lesotho’s 2005 Article IV Consultation reports that the government’s fiscal position and the external current account have improved markedly. The authorities are preparing an action plan, in collaboration with development partners, to improve the business climate. Critical measures aim to increase labor productivity through training, reduce domestic costs for the private sector by addressing infrastructure bottlenecks, remove regulatory and administrative impediments, improve access to financial services, and promote product and export market diversification.
Olivier Basdevant, Dalmacio Benicio, and Mr. Yorbol Yakhshilikov
This paper applies the work of Berg and Ostry (2011) to the SACU region, to identify how inequalities have played a role in growth in each of these countries, and elaborates policy options to mitigate the effects of inequalities and foster growth. Lower income inequalities could lead to significant gains, as SACU countries could almost double the duration of their growth periods, with much lower inequalities. While reducing inequalities may be desirable, the design of policies to achieve such objective is not trivial. Policies targeting income inequalities at the sources are expected to be the most effective to reduce inequalities and promote growth. However, direct redistribution, if carefully crafted can also be very effective in reducing inequalities while limiting its potentially negative impact on growth.
International Monetary Fund

The challenge of achieving broad-based growth in Lesotho is discussed. Economic growth is inconsistent. Lesotho is highly dependent on trade with South Africa. The sources of growth in Lesotho using a social accounting matrix model and a growth-accounting framework are outlined. The main constraints to growth and private investment and current policy initiative to promote broad-based growth and private investment are analyzed. The various methods employed suggest that there is neither external stability nor significant evidence of exchange rate misalignment.

International Monetary Fund

This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for the Kingdom of Lesotho presents a determined plan in pursuance of high and sustainable equity-based economic growth. It contains medium-term objectives and strategies to address the major challenges facing the country. These challenges include employment creation and income generation, and improving quality of and access to education and health services. Lesotho plans to deal boldly with its trading and investment partners by exploiting the opportunities inherent in the process of globalization under such mechanisms as the Africa Growth and Opportunities Act.

International Monetary Fund

This Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper for the Kingdom of Lesotho presents a determined plan in pursuance of high and sustainable equity-based economic growth. It contains medium-term objectives and strategies to address the major challenges facing the country. These challenges include employment creation and income generation, and improving quality of and access to education and health services. Lesotho plans to deal boldly with its trading and investment partners by exploiting the opportunities inherent in the process of globalization under such mechanisms as the Africa Growth and Opportunities Act.