Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for :

  • Revenue administration x
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic x
Clear All
Mr. Sumio Ishikawa, Ms. Sibel Beadle, Mr. Damien Eastman, Ms. Srobona Mitra, Mr. Alejandro Lopez Mejia, Ms. Wafa F Abdelati, Mr. Koji Nakamura, Mr. Il Houng Lee, Ms. Sònia Muñoz, Mr. Robert P. Hagemann, Mr. David T. Coe, and Ms. Nadia Rendak

Abstract

Cambodia's reconstruction and reform efforts have spanned almost 25 years following the Khmer Rouge period, which ended in 1979. Economic reforms began in earnest in the early 1990s, but reform efforts were beset by ongoing internal tensions and civil unrest. Although external factors, including sizable aid inflows and a trade agreement with the United States, helped boost growth in the past decade, the country remains one of the poorest in the region. The current coalition government has announced a strategy aimed at revitalizing economic reforms, and in 2004 Cambodia formally joined the World Trade Organization. But elimination of the garment quota system under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing is exposing an underlying deterioration in competitiveness, which, coupled with slow growth in the agriculture sector and other structural obstacles to private sector growth, has resulted in a medium-term outlook that remains uncertain.

Mr. Olaf Unteroberdoerster

Abstract

Cambodia is poised to join a new generation of Asian frontier economies transitioning from low-income to emerging-market. But the path to greater and more shared prosperity requires a solid foundation of sound macroeconomic policies, enabling new growth drivers, tackling a highly dollarized and fragmented financial system, and creating more fiscal policy space to help meet Cambodia’s vast development needs. This book first takes a closer look at the key economic challenges Cambodia faces at the current juncture, highlighting Cambodia’s structural and financial constraints to growth as well as shifting vulnerabilities as Asia rebalances. It then lays out how a strategy of fiscal and financial sector policies, from creating a fairer and more buoyant tax system to modernizing financial instruments, markets and supervision, can help mobilize the resources and tools needed for one of Asia’s youngest and fastest-growing populations to enjoy more self-sustaining and inclusive growth.

International Monetary Fund
Progress in fiscal reforms, especially with regard to revenue mobilization, will require a broader reform of center-province fiscal relations in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. There are challenges ahead to restructure the state-owned commercial banks (SCB) and strengthen the banking system. Corporate governance of SCBs is still weak, hampered by the absence of a fully independent board of directors. The international advisors should continue to play an important role in the bank restructuring process. The note presents statistical data on economic indices of Lao People's Democratic Republic.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix for the Lao People’s Democratic Republic underlies debt sustainability analysis. Sensitivity analysis reveals that if the pace of economic reforms falters, the debt burden—high even in the baseline case—could become unsustainable. The low level of development and the high share of the subsistence agricultural sector limit the revenue collection capacity. Weak technical capacity and highly fragmented revenue administration are the main structural weaknesses affecting revenue performance.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This Selected Issues paper describes the current tax system in Bhutan and suggests options for tax policy reform. Though significant hydropower revenues are expected in the medium term as major projects come on-stream, reforms to the existing tax system in the interim will generate fiscal room and prevent recourse to domestic debt to finance development needs. Key reforms include reducing tax exemptions in the near term and introduction of value-added tax in the medium term. The paper also analyzes the adequacy of international reserves in Bhutan using a customized risk-weighted metric. The results indicate that Bhutan’s reserve levels are ample.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
KEY ISSUES Context: The authorities continue to make progress on their far-reaching political and economic reform program. Key economic reform priorities are being realized. However, macroeconomic and financial risks are building, and capacity constraints are slowing institutional reform. Constitutional amendments are being considered ahead of the 2015 elections, and peace negotiations are continuing despite religious and ethnic tensions. Macroeconomic situation and outlook: Growth is accelerating, with average growth projected around 8¼ percent in the next few years, and inflation should remain broadly stable. After depreciating in 2013, the exchange rate has stabilized. The external current account has widened despite improved export performance but rising capital account inflows should enable Central Bank of Myanmar (CBM)’s international reserves to grow rapidly from their current low levels. Monetary aggregates are growing at double-digit rates. The underlying fiscal deficit in 2013/14 is estimated at 3 percent of GDP and is forecast to widen to around 5½ percent of GDP in 2014/15, but should decline below 5 percent of GDP in the medium term. However, off budget operations could increase the deficit. Risks also arise from capacity constraints and thin fiscal and external buffers. Medium- and long-term prospects: Economic prospects remain strong. Myanmar’s long-run growth potential is estimated at around 7 percent, in line with peer countries’ experience, but sound institutional and policy frameworks need to be built to realize this. Key policy recommendations: Macroeconomic policy challenges are likely to intensify in the short term. Monetary policy tools need to be more aggressively deployed, and mechanisms established to transfer public sector foreign exchange earnings automatically to the CBM. The regulatory framework for the banking sector needs to be urgently upgraded and supervision strengthened, particularly as foreign banks will soon enter. Tax policy and administration should aim at simplifying the system and preparing for the introduction of a value-added tax (VAT). Technical assistance (TA): Capacity building will be crucial to achieve policy objectives. The IMF continues to provide intensive TA in key areas, including in a wide range of CBM operations, tax policy and administration, public financial management and statistics.
International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Lao People’s Democratic Republic (P.D.R) analyses that after more than a decade of high growth with low inflation, country is solidifying its progress toward graduating from the Least Developed Country (LDC) status. However, more than one-fifth of the population remains poor, regional disparities are persistent, and recurring natural disasters pose risks for poverty reduction. A large current account deficit, low level of reserves, a high level of debt, managed exchange rate, and a dollarized banking system amplify macro-vulnerabilities. The authorities recognize the current economic challenges and their comprehensive reform programs aim at rebalancing the economy from a resource based to a more diversified growth model by investing in human development and improving competitiveness. Modernizing monetary governance and building reserves supported by greater exchange rate flexibility will help to mitigate external shocks in an uncertain global environment.
Mr. Marc G Quintyn and Ms. Genevieve Verdier
Only a minority of countries have succeeded in establishing a developed financial system, despite widespread financial liberalization. Confronted with this finding, the political institutions view claims that sustained financial deepening is most likely to take place in institutional environments where governments effectively impose constraints on their own powers in order to create trust. This paper identifies over 200 post-1960 episodes of accelerations in financial development in a large cross-section of countries. We find that the likelihood of an acceleration leading to sustained financial development increases greatly in environments that have high-quality political institutions.
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic’s economy rebounded in 2004 from a number of shocks in 2003, including a drought and the regional impact of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Macroeconomic stability has been restored and poverty has continued to decline, the IMF said in its regular economic assessment. Annual inflation, which had surged into double digits in 2002, has fallen gradually since mid-2003. The IMF’s Executive Board welcomed the improved economic management but urged faster progress in mobilizing domestic revenue, improving public expenditure management, restructuring state-owned banks and enterprises, and promoting private sector activity.

International Monetary Fund

Progress in fiscal reforms, especially with regard to revenue mobilization, will require a broader reform of center-province fiscal relations in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. There are challenges ahead to restructure the state-owned commercial banks (SCB) and strengthen the banking system. Corporate governance of SCBs is still weak, hampered by the absence of a fully independent board of directors. The international advisors should continue to play an important role in the bank restructuring process. The note presents statistical data on economic indices of Lao People's Democratic Republic.