This paper investigates the empirical characteristics of business cycles and the extent of cyclical comovement in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, using various measures of synchronization for non-hydrocarbon GDP and constituents of aggregate demand during the period 1990-2010. By applying the Christiano-Fitzgerald asymmetric band-pass filter and a mean corrected concordance index, the paper identifies the degree of non-hydrocarbon business cycle synchronization?one of the main prerequisites for countries considering to establish a monetary union. The empirical results show low and heterogeneous synchronization in non-hydrocarbon business cycles across the GCC economies, and a decline in the degree of synchronicity in the 2000s, if Kuwait is excluded from the sample, partly because of divergent fiscal policies.
This paper investigates the global macroeconomic consequences of falling oil prices due to the oil
revolution in the United States, using a Global VAR model estimated for 38 countries/regions
over the period 1979Q2 to 2011Q2. Set-identification of the U.S. oil supply shock is achieved
through imposing dynamic sign restrictions on the impulse responses of the model. The results
show that there are considerable heterogeneities in the responses of different countries to a U.S.
supply-driven oil price shock, with real GDP increasing in both advanced and emerging market
oil-importing economies, output declining in commodity exporters, inflation falling in most
countries, and equity prices rising worldwide. Overall, our results suggest that following the U.S.
oil revolution, with oil prices falling by 51 percent in the first year, global growth increases by
0.16 to 0.37 percentage points. This is mainly due to an increase in spending by oil importing
countries, which exceeds the decline in expenditure by oil exporters.
Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh, Mr. Sami Ben Naceur, Mr. Oussama Kanaan, and Christophe Rault
Our paper examines the effect of oil price changes on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock markets using nonlinear smooth transition regression (STR) models. Contrary to conventional wisdom, our empirical results reveal that GCC stock markets do not have similar sensitivities to oil price changes. We document the presence of stock market returns’ asymmetric reactions in some GCC countries, but not for others. In Kuwait’s case, negative oil price changes exert larger impacts on stock returns than positive oil price changes. When considering the asymmetry with respect to the magnitude of oil price variation, we find that Oman’s and Qatar’s stock markets are more sensitive to large oil price changes than to small ones. Our results highlight the importance of economic stabilization and reform policies that can potentially reduce the sensitivity of stock returns to oil price changes, especially with regard to the existence of asymmetric behavior.