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International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights Saudi Arabia’s launch of a bold reform program under Vision 2030, announced in 2016. The authorities have made considerable progress in initiating the implementation of their ambitious reform agenda. Non-oil growth is projected to pick up to 1.7 percent in 2017. Growth is expected to strengthen over the medium term as structural reforms are implemented. Risks mainly come from uncertainties about future oil prices, as well as questions about how the ongoing reforms will affect the economy. Employment growth has weakened, and the unemployment rate among Saudi nationals has increased to 12.3 percent. The fiscal deficit is also projected to narrow substantially in the coming years.
International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

KEY ISSUESContext. Saudi Arabia�s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefittingfrom high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated.Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is expected to be little changed from 2013, while non-oil growth will be underpinned by strong private sector activity and government spending on large projects in transportation infrastructure and housing. Inflation is expected to remain subdued. The main source of risk is the global oil market.Macroeconomic policies. Fiscal buffers are strong at present, providing macroeconomic policies with scope to respond to shocks. The current path of fiscal policy would, however, lead to a substantial erosion of these buffers over the medium-term. Fiscal adjustment needs to start to preserve these buffers and increase saving for intergenerational equity purposes. Monetary and macro-prudential policy settings are appropriate at present. Reforms to the macroeconomic policy framework can help strengthen macroeconomic management and create an environment conducive to private investment and job creation.Managing demographic pressures. A multi-pronged labor market reform program is increasing the employment of nationals in the private sector and improving the functioning of the labor market. An ambitious program to boost the supply of housing is also underway. Energy consumption is high, and price increases are needed to support efforts to increase energy efficiency and develop public transportation networks.Economic diversification. Creating a more diversified economy is a challenge given Saudi Arabia�s vast oil resources. The government is making considerable efforts to lay the groundwork for further diversification by upgrading infrastructure, strengthening education and skills, boosting access to finance for SMEs, and improving the business environment. However, more needs to be done to realign incentives to encourage firmsto export and workers to seek jobs in the private sector.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

The global oil market environment has changed substantially over the past year with oil prices dropping by close to 50 percent. Based on historical experience, the large oil price decline is expected to affect the macroeconomy and the financial sector. Meanwhile, demographic pressures to provide jobs and housing for a rapidly growing and young population continue.

International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

Saudi Arabia has begun a fundamental policy shift to respond to low oil prices. The government has introduced a series of reforms over the past year and has recently set out plans for a bold and ambitious transformation of the Saudi Arabian economy in Vision 2030 and the National Transformation Program. Diversifying the economy, creating jobs for nationals in the private sector, and implementing a gradual, but sizable and sustained fiscal consolidation are key policy priorities.