Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for :

  • Occasional Papers x
Clear All
Jean-Pierre Briffaut, Mr. George Iden, Mr. Peter C. Hayward, Mr. Tonny Lybek, Mr. Hassanali Mehran, Mr. Piero Ugolini, and Mr. Stephen M Swaray

Abstract

This study takes stock of progress made so far in the financial sectors of sub-saharan African countries. It recommends further reforms and specific measures in the areas of supervision, development of monetary operations and financial markets, external sector liberalization, central bank autonomy and accountability, payments system, and central bank accounting and auditing.

Mr. Alan A. Tait and Mr. Peter S. Heller

Abstract

How many people are employed by the government? How many are employed by the central government compared with the state and local authorities? How many are employed in public enterprise? How much are they all paid? How much are they paid relative to each other, or relative to the private sector? Such questions interest people in general and economists and policymakers in particular; yet it is remarkable how little information is readily accessible on thes topics.

Mr. Alan A. Tait and Mr. Peter S. Heller

Abstract

How many people are employed by the government? How many are employed by the central government compared with state and local authorities? How many are employed in public enterprises? How much are they all paid? How much are they paid relative to each other, or relative to the private sector? Such questions interest people in general and economists and policymakers in particular; yet it is remarkable how little information is readily accessible on these topics.

Ms. Sena Eken, Mr. John F. Laker, and Mr. Shailendra J. Anjaria

Abstract

In late 1979, the African Center for Monetary Studies requested, on behalf of the Association of African Central Banks (AACB), that the Fund staff prepare a study describing the existing payments, exchange control, and exchange rate arrangements in the proposed 17-nation Preferential Trade Area (PTA) of Eastern and Southern African States, analyzing any payments obstacles to trade in the region, and recommending improvements in payments arrangements that would promote intraregional trade.1 This paper contains an updated and slightly revised version of the report prepared in response to that request.2

Ms. Hema R. De Zoysa, Mr. Robert L. Sharer, and Mr. Calvin A McDonald

Abstract

Following its independence in 1962, Uganda initially witnessed a period of considerable economic progress. Between 1963 and 1973, the annual average rate of GDP growth was 6 percent. Additionally, the balance of payments was in surplus during most of this period, and inflation was low. However, in 1971, a military regime assumed power under General Idi Amin, and Uganda moved away from the outward-oriented policies pursued in the immediate postindependence period. Local industries were granted significant protection, the size and involvement of the public sector in economic activity expanded considerably, and members of the Asian community, which had dominated the industrial and commercial sectors, were expelled and their properties expropriated. Efficiency and financial discipline suffered, leading to a significant decline in output of about 20 percent during the 1970s. As budgetary revenues collapsed, there was an increasing reliance on domestic bank financing, which intensified inflationary pressures. Despite mounting inflation, and the consequent appreciation of the real effective exchange rate, the official exchange rate and agricultural producer prices were kept practically fixed throughout the 1970s.

Mr. Reint Gropp, Mr. Liam P. Ebrill, and Ms. Janet Gale Stotsky

Abstract

In recent decades many countries have dismantled trade barriers and opened their economies to international competition. Trade liberalization is seen to promote economic efficiency, international competitiveness, and an expansion of trade, perhaps especially in imperfectly competitive markets.1 Yet despite this progress in trade liberalization, as evidenced by the conclusion of the Uruguay Round in 1994 and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995,2 trade barriers are still widespread. Some economies and some sectors (e.g., agriculture in many industrial countries) remain relatively insulated from the global economy by a variety of non tariff and tariff barriers, even as import substitution continues to lose ground as a strategy for economic development.

Jean-Pierre Briffaut, Mr. George Iden, Mr. Peter C. Hayward, Mr. Tonny Lybek, Mr. Hassanali Mehran, Mr. Piero Ugolini, and Mr. Stephen M Swaray

Abstract

The countries of sub-Saharan Africa have witnessed a distinct improvement in their economic performance in recent years, with increasing growth rates, declining inflation, and narrowing financial imbalances. The improvement is attributable in large part to the implementation of sound economic, fiscal, and financial policies, including policies to liberalize trade and improve the investment climate. In addition, these countries embarked on fundamental structural reform.

Mr. Alan A. Tait and Mr. Peter S. Heller

Abstract

The collection of data on the subject of government employment and wages proved extremely difficult. Neither the International Labor Organization (ILO) nor any of the other United Nations organizations collects statistics on either subject in a standardized way. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has occasionally done work in this area but only on a limited basis, including a recent study on the general magnitude of government employment in the OECD countries during the 1970s.1 Over the last 20 years, a handful of academic studies have been made on the subject.2

Ms. Hema R. De Zoysa, Mr. Robert L. Sharer, and Mr. Calvin A McDonald

Abstract

The recent economic performance of the Ugandan economy can be assessed with respect to the following: (i) the broad policy objectives in the major macroeconomic sectors as well as structural areas; (ii) policy implementation, including the financial and structural performance criteria and benchmarks of IMF programs, in addition to other policy areas important to the overall success of the program; and (iii) the economic outturn in the real, monetary, fiscal, and external sectors.

Mr. Reint Gropp, Mr. Liam P. Ebrill, and Ms. Janet Gale Stotsky

Abstract

Economists often rank trade liberalization reforms by order of importance, giving highest priority to the reduction or removal of quantitative restrictions and other non tariff barriers to trade or their conversion to tariffs. This is followed by reductions in both the number of distinct tariff rates and the range that they cover (i.e., their dispersion) and finally by reductions in the levels of tariffs. Although this liberalization strategy is typically justified on economic efficiency grounds (Box 1), the initial focus on the removal of non tariff barriers also has the advantage of helping preserve the revenue yield. The agenda for trade reform is also influenced by international practice and agreements and, in particular, by WTO rules and agreements on the design of trade reform.1