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International Monetary Fund

This paper describes economic developments in Denmark during 1990–96. After a prolonged period of stagnation in the second half of the 1980s and early 1990s, GDP rose by 4¼ percent in 1994, reflecting a surge in domestic demand and recovery in export markets. The expansion of GDP slowed to a 2¾ percent pace in 1995 as domestic demand moderated and as exports decelerated sharply. The slowing of external markets intensified in the course of 1995 with the result that GDP in the fourth quarter was barely above its first quarter level.

International Monetary Fund

This Selected Issues paper for Denmark shows that a demographic shift will have several impacts on the economy. The decline in the relative size of the labor force will result in relatively fewer goods produced. This effect will be particularly strong, because a large portion of the current baby-boomers are in their peak earning years, and their retirement will have a dramatic effect on productivity and on overall production. Demark has imposed a restrictive policy requiring that immigrants prove they have a job that meets wage and working condition standards before getting a work permit.

International Monetary Fund

The paper discusses the flexicurity model, its key policy elements, and association with a low unemployment rate and a high standard of social security for the unemployed. It provides details of an empirical analysis of unemployment performance and the flexicurity model. It also presents selected stylized facts about Danish housing price developments and focuses on tax treatment affecting the market. It also shows an empirical result on developments in the housing finance market and in the Danish taxation of housing.

International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

This Selected Issues paper examines the household debt situation in Denmark and factors that have contributed to the high level of household debt in the country. Various factors seem to account for the size of household debt, including large pension assets, a highly developed mortgage market, the availability of flexible mortgage products such as deferred amortization loans, indirect subsidies through tax preferences for home ownership, and a regulated rental market that limits mobility. The paper highlights that high household debt could pose direct risks to financial stability if the number of mortgage loan defaults rises sharply in the face of adverse shocks.

International Monetary Fund
The paper discusses the flexicurity model, its key policy elements, and association with a low unemployment rate and a high standard of social security for the unemployed. It provides details of an empirical analysis of unemployment performance and the flexicurity model. It also presents selected stylized facts about Danish housing price developments and focuses on tax treatment affecting the market. It also shows an empirical result on developments in the housing finance market and in the Danish taxation of housing.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper analyzes labor market asymmetries and macroeconomic adjustment in Germany. Empirical work reported shows that in Germany, negative demand shocks increase the unemployment rate by more than the decrease in the unemployment rate caused by a comparable-sized positive demand shock. The contribution of labor costs to explaining the high level of unemployment, particularly since unification, is studied. Empirical estimates are obtained for the wage gap—the deviation of actual labor costs from warranted labor costs based on estimated production functions assuming competitive factor markets and full employment.
International Monetary Fund
The key findings of Denmark’s 2008 Article IV Consultation are examined. The global liquidity crisis put the financial sector under severe stress, but most banks have weathered the crisis well owing to strong initial positions and supportive policies. The crisis accelerated a downturn that had begun in 2007 and tilted the balance of macroeconomic risk toward recession. The macroeconomic policy mix is appropriate, including higher interest rates to support the exchange rate peg and an expansionary budget to add a countercyclical thrust to the strong stabilizing effect of Denmark’s automatic stabilizers.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This paper discusses Finland’s public sector balance sheet. The public sector balance sheet approach expands analysis of public finances beyond government debt to also include government assets, public corporations, and pension liabilities. For Finland, it shows that static public sector net worth is negative at some 160 percent of GDP. This implies that Finland’s future fiscal balances and policies will have to be sufficiently strong to compensate, and also to address future spending pressures from rising health and long-term care. The intertemporal balance sheet shows that Finland’s current medium-term fiscal framework meets this criterion—but only if health and social services reform achieves the targeted savings in public spending during the 2020s. In light of numerous risks it would be prudent to use the present economic upswing to make early headway in rebuilding buffers. Finland has a track record of prudent fiscal policy. During good economic times, the authorities have run sizable fiscal surpluses.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper for Denmark shows that a demographic shift will have several impacts on the economy. The decline in the relative size of the labor force will result in relatively fewer goods produced. This effect will be particularly strong, because a large portion of the current baby-boomers are in their peak earning years, and their retirement will have a dramatic effect on productivity and on overall production. Demark has imposed a restrictive policy requiring that immigrants prove they have a job that meets wage and working condition standards before getting a work permit.