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Marvin M. Wofsey and Paul M. Dickie

This paper describes modernization of ports in Peru. With the sea so predominant in the life of the country, modern ports are vital in Peru. A program has been undertaken to abandon the numerous obsolete ports served by barges and to establish a few strategically situated ports—modern, mechanized, and with terminals having direct mooring facilities. At the same time, Callao, the country’s chief port, has been improved, and specially equipped ports are being planned for fishing products.

George J. Novak

This paper focuses on the subject of development and income distribution, and suggests a method whereby economic development can be skewed in favor of the poor. The paper underscores that improvements in the distribution of income can be achieved by applying shadow cost significantly below money cost to determine the social cost of employing members of low-income groups and to use the social consolidation strategy in the choice of technology in the physical construction of projects. The application of this method would result in the more extensive use of labor instead of capital equipment.