Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 63 items for :

  • Archived Series x
  • Diseases: AIDS and HIV x
Clear All
International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

“There is no end in sight to the misuse of power by those in public office—and corruption levels are perceived to be as high as ever in both the developed and developing worlds,” said Peter Eigen, Chair of Transparency International, speaking at a Paris press conference in June to launch the nonprofit organization’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2001. “There is a worldwide corruption crisis,” he continued, “and that is the clear message from the Corruption Perceptions Index 2001, which reflects the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Scores of less than 5 out of a clean score of 10 are registered by countries on every continent, including members of the Organization of American States and the European Union.”

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Amid blaring headlines on Iraq, war, and reconstruction, several African finance ministers and a central bank governor held a press briefing on April 11 in Washington to remind the world that their continent’s needs required urgent and continued attention. Charles Konan Banny (Governor of the Central Bank of West African States), Benjamin Radavidson (Madagascar), Timothy T. Thahane (Lesotho), Joseph B. Dauda (Sierra Leone), and Gerald M. Ssendaula (Uganda) reported on progress with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), highlighted pressing issues, among them market access, meeting the UN’s Millennium Development Goals, and debt relief. They appealed to donors to attend to Afghani and Iraqi needs but not withdraw support for Africa’s determined effort to reduce poverty.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

At the African Union summit in Maputo, Mozambique, in July and the IMF-World Bank Annual Meetings in Dubai in late September, African leaders underscored their commitment to sound policies and good governance but expressed strong frustration with donor countries’ slowness in keeping up their end of the bargain. Abdoulaye Bio-Tchané, who has headed the IMF’s African Department for the past two years after serving as Benin’s Minister of Finance and Economy, talks with Laura Wallace about what he sees as the biggest stumbling blocks to ensuring a better future for the African continent.

International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Leaders of the IMF and the World Bank met for the first time with leaders of the World Council of Churches (WCC) in Geneva on October 22. The meetings followed a number of staff-level discussions since 2002 on issues related to poverty reduction and development. The leaders acknowledged significant areas of common ground between the Bretton Woods institutions and the WCC but also continuing differences that need to be further explored.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Whether working on a low-income country or an advanced economy, it is important that macroeconomists be aware of issues in health economics and health policy. Health care has gained prominent recognition in development. The United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set 10 specific targets to be achieved by 2015, of which three explicitly pertain to health. Research studies document that millions of households in developing nations are impoverished each year by health expenditures, retarding poverty alleviation efforts, and an emerging body of research shows that investments in health can have a significant effect on economic development (Bloom and Canning, 2000; Fogel, 2004; and Bloom, Canning, and Sevilla, 2004). HIV/AIDS has undermined the development prospects of a number of African countries and threatens to weaken the growth momentum of several important Asian economies. For middle-income economies, transition economies, and industrial countries, the challenge posed by the health sector for macroeconomists differs, but is no less daunting. Increasingly, pressures emerging from the health sector—in part owing to the aging of populations and in part due to the rapid pace of technological change in the medical sector—are affecting fiscal sustainability, inflation, and possibly even the current account of the balance of payments.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

As a general rule, issues of health care policy have not generally been seen as the domain of macroeconomists. Only in recent years, with the report of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH) (WHO, 2001, 2002), has there been a greater focus on why health issues are relevant to macroeconomic policymakers and, in particular, ministers of finance. That report also provided further support for the prominence of health goals (for example, reduced infant and maternal mortality rates as well as reduced prevalence rates for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis) in formulating the MDGs. The CMH initiative principally sought to demonstrate that progress in improving health in low-income countries could be a critical factor influencing the growth potential of a country. In particular, the CMH report explored the various ways in which better health status could improve the quality of the labor force; enhance productivity, in both the short and the long run; limit the extent to which catastrophic illnesses can lead to households falling into poverty; raise household saving rates; and reduce fertility rates.3

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Certain basic facts about the health sector and health care are not widely known. This section explains what macroeconomists should know on this subject as they participate in the formulation of health policies.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Although specific issues confront nations at different stages of development, several issues confront all nations throughout the world. We first present the universal issues, then the ones for each stage.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

Like other socioeconomic systems, a health system is structured by state action or inaction to serve certain social purposes. A state makes conscious decisions in structuring the system to achieve certain objectives or takes no action, allowing the system to become a laissez-faire free market system. Simply put, a health system is a means to an end. It exists and evolves to serve societal needs. Under this paradigm, a health system is a set of relationships in which the means—structural elements of the system—are causally connected to the ends or goals.

Mr. Peter S. Heller and Mr. William C. Hsiao

Abstract

This chapter presents an analytical framework to help macroeconomists understand health systems and assess health policy for countries at different stages of development. To state the obvious, the same health system structure cannot be applied to all countries. Systems differ enormously among countries, owing to variations in socioeconomic development. What works in the United Kingdom, say, may not work in Kenya. On the other hand, must every country be treated differently? Or can they be grouped into somewhat homogenous categories, and general conclusions drawn for each?