Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 41 items for :

Clear All
International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Abstract

The period from May 2012 through April 2013—the IMF’s financial year 20131—saw the world dealing with the prolonged effects of a global crisis that had persisted well beyond initial expectations in an atmosphere of heightened global change. With economic activity remaining weak and the potential for renewed stresses still high, efforts to advance global stability and a secure future were as essential as ever.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

This year looks set to be another encouraging one for most sub-Saharan African economies. Reflecting mainly strong domestic demand but also elevated commodity prices, the region’s economy is set to expand by 5¼ percent in 2011. For 2012, our baseline projection is for growth to be higher at 5¾ percent, owing to one-off boosts to production in a number of countries.

B G. E

Abstract

It is now 20 years since the first cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were discovered in sub-Saharan Africa. At the beginning of the third decade of the global pandemic, AIDS has reversed gains in life expectancy and improvements in child mortality in many countries; mortality among the population aged 15–49 has increased manyfold, even in countries with modest epidemics.1 AIDS is the leading cause of mortality among adults (WHO, 2004). According to estimates by the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), as of the end of 2003, over 20 million people had died of AIDS. Some 38 million people are estimated to be living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, the overwhelming majority of whom—over 90 percent—are in the developing world.

M O

Abstract

Any discussion of the impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on health care systems must distinguish between treatment of the opportunistic illnesses associated with AIDS and treatment directed at the underlying cause, namely, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment of opportunistic illnesses can alleviate suffering but typically extends life by only months. Treatment that controls the HIV in the patient’s body, called antiretroviral therapy or ART, can be much more successful, adding years to life expectancy.

International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Abstract

As FY2013 came to a close, financial conditions had improved, but the road to a comprehensive and robust global recovery was expected to remain bumpy. Policy actions during the year addressed the gravest short-term risks, but growth prospects were little changed by the end of April 2013, and the global economy was evolving at different speeds—in various parts of the world improved financial conditions had not translated evenly into growth or other factors were acting as brakes.

M H

Abstract

In many countries, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has attained a scale at which the impact on the economy and, even more broadly, on societies, is both evident and very serious. Through its broad economic impact, HIV/AIDS thus becomes an issue for macroeconomic analysis, and policies to prevent the spread of the virus have direct implications for key economic indicators such as economic growth and income per capita,1 and for economic development more generally. However, because the impact is very uneven across individuals or households, an analysis that captures only the main aggregate economic variables would miss many of the microeconomic effects of HIV/AIDS on living standards, which also matter for public policy and which, in turn, affect the main aggregate economic variables, for example through the accumulation of physical and human capital.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the apparent disconnect between recent growth and poverty outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa:

International Monetary Fund. Secretary's Department

Abstract

As recent experiences in world economic and financial markets have underscored, countries have become more interconnected. Developments in one country or region can quickly spill across borders. In reviewing economic trends and developments that affect the health of the international monetary and financial system, the IMF has focused increasingly on the regional and international consequences of member countries’ economic and financial policies.

International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

Abstract

During the past decade, sub-Saharan African countries have increasingly started exploiting new markets, marking what seems to be a historic reorientation of their trade and investment toward new partners, including those within the region (as defined in Appendix I). Very importantly, this reorientation has largely occurred through trade creation rather than trade diversion, as engagement with traditional partners has continued to grow in recent years, though at a slower pace than that with new partners. The broad aims of this chapter are to shed light on the extent of this reorientation, what it implies for sub-Saharan African countries, and the opportunities and challenges it poses.

C B, S D, and H G

Abstract

In his book Plagues and Peoples, McNeill (1976) views history as the interplay between an array of parasites and their human hosts—a struggle in which communicable diseases and human responses to them have profound social, economic, and cultural effects. Following the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, humanity must now contend with a new great plague, the scale and character of which will surely put McNeill’s thesis to the test. One vital lesson to be drawn from his account is that any attempt to understand the effects of the AIDS epidemic must take a long-term perspective. That is a salient feature of the approach we adopt here: we will argue that, from modest beginnings, the economic damage caused by AIDS can assume catastrophic proportions over the long run, and thereby threaten the social fabric itself.