Mr. Adolfo Barajas, Mr. Ralph Chami, Mr. Christian H Ebeke, and Mr. Sampawende J Tapsoba
This paper shows that remittance flows significantly increase the business cycle synchronization between remittance-recipient countries and the rest of the world. Using both aggregate and bilateral remittances data in a panel data setting, the study demonstrates that this effect is robust and causal. Moreover, the econometric analysis reveals that remittance flows are more effective in channeling economic downturns than upswings from the sending countries to remittance-receiving economies. The analysis suggests that measures of openness and spillovers could be enhanced by accounting for the role of the remittances channel.
This Selected Issues paper on the Kingdom of Lesotho reviews the broad objectives and key institutional features of the Common Monetary Area (CMA) relating to currency arrangements. The CMA Agreement provides for the three small member countries to have access to South African capital and money markets, but only through prescribed investments or approved securities that can be held by financial institutions in South Africa. Lesotho’s exchange rate arrangement under the CMA shares certain characteristics of a currency board.